Balsalazide (Colazal)
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Balsalazide (Colazal)

COLAZAL®
(balsalazide disodium) Capsules

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Each COLAZAL capsule contains 750 mg of balsalazide disodium, a prodrug that is enzymatically cleaved in the colon to produce mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid or 5-ASA), an anti-inflammatory drug. Each capsule of COLAZAL (balsalazide) (750 mg) is equivalent to 267 mg of mesalamine. Balsalazide disodium has the chemical name (E)-5-[[-4-[[(2- carboxyethyl) amino]carbonyl] phenyl]azo]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid, disodium salt, dihydrate. Its structural formula is:

COLAZAL (Balsalazide disodium) structural formula illustration

Molecular Weight: 437.32

Molecular Formula: C17H13N3O6Na2•2H2O

Balsalazide disodium is a stable, odorless orange to yellow microcrystalline powder. It is freely soluble in water and isotonic saline, sparingly soluble in methanol and ethanol, and practically insoluble in all other organic solvents.

Inactive Ingredients: Each hard gelatin capsule contains colloidal silicon dioxide and magnesium stearate. The sodium content of each capsule is approximately 86 mg.

What are the possible side effects of balsalazide (Colazal)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using balsalazide and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • worsening colitis symptoms, such as fever, stomach pain, cramps, or bloody diarrhea;
  • bleeding from your rectum; or
  • pale skin, easy bruising, weakness.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • headache, sleep problems (insomnia);
  • nausea, vomiting, stomach pain,...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Colazal »

What are the precautions when taking balsalazide (Colazal)?

Before taking balsalazide, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to aspirin, NSAIDs (e.g., ibuprofen, celecoxib), or salicylates (e.g., salsalate); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: stomach/intestinal blockage (e.g., pyloric stenosis), liver disease, kidney disease.

This medication is similar to aspirin. Children and teenagers should not take aspirin or aspirin-related medications (e.g., salicylates) if they have chickenpox, flu, or any undiagnosed illness, or if they have just been given a live virus vaccine...

Read All Potential Precautions of Colazal »

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/3/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

INDICATIONS

COLAZAL (balsalazide) is indicated for the treatment of mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis in patients 5 years of age and older. Safety and effectiveness of COLAZAL (balsalazide) beyond 8 weeks in children (ages 5-17 years) and 12 weeks in adults have not been established.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Adult Dose

For treatment of active ulcerative colitis in adult patients, the usual dose is three 750 mg COLAZAL (balsalazide) capsules to be taken 3 times a day (6.75 g per day) for up to 8 weeks. Some patients in the adult clinical trials required treatment for up to 12 weeks.

Pediatric Dose

For treatment of active ulcerative colitis in pediatric patients, aged 5 to 17 years, the usual dose is EITHER:

  • three 750 mg COLAZAL (balsalazide) capsules 3 times a day (6.75 g per day) for up to 8 weeks;
    OR:
  • one 750 mg COLAZAL (balsalazide) capsule 3 times a day (2.25 g per day) for up to 8 weeks.

Use of COLAZAL (balsalazide) in the pediatric population for more than 8 weeks has not been evaluated in clinical trials. [See Clinical Studies Section]

Administration Alternatives

COLAZAL (balsalazide) capsules may also be administered by carefully opening the capsule and sprinkling the capsule contents on applesauce. The entire drug/applesauce mixture should be swallowed immediately; the contents may be chewed, if necessary, since contents of COLAZAL (balsalazide) are NOT coated beads/granules. Patients should be instructed not to store any drug/applesauce mixture for future use.

If the capsules are opened for sprinkling, color variation of the powder inside the capsules ranges from orange to yellow and is expected due to color variation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient.

Teeth and/or tongue staining may occur in some patients who use COLAZAL (balsalazide) in sprinkle form with food.

HOW SUPPLIED

Dosage Forms And Strengths

COLAZAL is available as beige capsules containing 750 mg balsalazide disodium and CZ imprinted in black.

Storage And Handling

COLAZAL is available as beige capsules containing 750 mg balsalazide disodium and CZ imprinted in black.

NDC 65649-101-02 Bottles of 280 capsules.
NDC 65649-101-50 Bottles of 500 capsules.

Storage

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15° and 30°C (59° and 86°F). See USP Controlled Room Temperature.

Manufactured for Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Morrisville, NC 27560. * COLAZAL® (balsalazide) is a registered trademark of Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. FDA Rev date: 7/9/2008

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/3/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

SIDE EFFECTS

Clinical Studies Experience

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adult Ulcerative Colitis

During clinical development, 259 adult patients with active ulcerative colitis were exposed to 6.75 g/day COLAZAL (balsalazide) in 4 controlled trials.

In the 4 controlled clinical trials patients receiving a COLAZAL (balsalazide) dose of 6.75 g/day most frequently reported the following adverse reactions: headache (8%), abdominal pain (6%), diarrhea (5%), nausea (5%), vomiting (4%), respiratory infection (4%), and arthralgia (4%). Withdrawal from therapy due to adverse reactions was comparable among patients on COLAZAL (balsalazide) and placebo.

Adverse reactions reported by 1% or more of patients who participated in the four controlled, Phase 3 trials are presented by treatment group in Table 1.

The number of placebo patients (35), however, is too small for valid comparisons. Some adverse reactions, such as abdominal pain, fatigue, and nausea were reported more frequently in women than in men. Abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, and anemia can be part of the clinical presentation of ulcerative colitis.

Table 1: Adverse Events occurring in ≥ 1% of Adult COLAZAL (balsalazide) Patients in Controlled Trials*

Adverse Reaction COLAZAL 6.75 g/day
[N=259]
Placebo
[N=35]
Abdominal pain 16 (6%) 1 (3%)
Diarrhea 14 (5%) 1 (3%)
Arthralgia 9 (4%) 0%
Rhinitis 6 (2%) 0%
Insomnia 6 (2%) 0%
Fatigue 6 (2%) 0%
Flatulence 5 (2%) 0%
Fever 5 (2%) 0%
Dyspepsia 5 (2%) 0%
Pharyngitis 4 (2%) 0%
Coughing 4 (2%) 0%
Anorexia 4 (2%) 0%
Urinary tract infection 3 (1%) 0%
Myalgia 3 (1%) 0%
Flu-like disorder 3 (1%) 0%
Dry mouth 3 (1%) 0%
Cramps 3 (1%) 0%
Constipation 3 (1%) 0%
*Adverse events occurring in at least 1% of Colazal (balsalazide) patients which were less frequent than placebo for the same event were not included in the table.

Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis

In a clinical trial in 68 pediatric patients aged 5 to 17 years with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis who received 6.75 g/day or 2.25 g/day COLAZAL (balsalazide) for 8 weeks, the most frequently reported adverse reactions were headache (15%), abdominal pain upper (13%), abdominal pain (12%), vomiting (10%), diarrhea (9%), colitis ulcerative (6%), nasopharyngitis (6%), and pyrexia (6%). [see Table 2]

One patient who received COLAZAL (balsalazide) 6.75 g/day and 3 patients who received COLAZAL (balsalazide) 2.25 g/day discontinued treatment because of adverse reactions. In addition, 2 patients in each dose group discontinued because of a lack of efficacy.

Adverse reactions reported by 3% or more of pediatric patients within either treatment group in the Phase 3 trial are presented in Table 2.

Table 2: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥ 3% of Patients in Either Treatment Group in a Controlled Study of 68 Pediatric Patients

Adverse Reaction COLAZAL
6.75 g/day
[N=33]
2.25 g/day
[N=35]
Total
[N=68]
Headache 5 (15%) 5 (14%) 10 (15%)
Abdominal pain upper 3 (9%) 6 (17%) 9 (13%)
Abdominal pain 4 (12%) 4 (11%) 8 (12%)
Vomiting 1 (3%) 6 (17%) 7 (10%)
Diarrhea 2 (6%) 4 (11%) 6 (9%)
Colitis ulcerative 2 (6%) 2 (6%) 4 (6%)
Nasopharyngitis 3 (9%) 1 (3%) 4 (6%)
Pyrexia 0 (0%) 4 (11%) 4 (6%)
Hematochezia 0 (0%) 3 (9%) 3 (4%)
Nausea 0 (0%) 3 (9%) 3 (4%)
Influenza 1 (3%) 2 (6%) 3 (4%)
Fatigue 2 (6%) 1 (3%) 3 (4%)
Stomatitis 0 (0%) 2 (6%) 2 (3%)
Cough 0 (0%) 2 (6%) 2 (3%)
Pharyngolaryngeal pain 2 (6%) 0 (0%) 2 (3%)
Dysmenorrhea 2 (6%) 0 (0%) 2 (3%)

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of balsalazide in clinical practice:

myocarditis, pericarditis, vasculitis, pruritus, pleural effusion, pneumonia (with and without eosinophilia), alveolitis, renal failure, interstitial nephritis, pancreatitis, and alopecia.

Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These adverse reactions have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to balsalazide.

Hepatic

Postmarketing adverse reactions of hepatotoxicity have been reported for products which contain (or are metabolized to) mesalamine, including elevated liver function tests (SGOT/AST, SGPT/ALT, GGT, LDH, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin), jaundice, cholestatic jaundice, cirrhosis, hepatocellular damage including liver necrosis and liver failure. Some of these cases were fatal; however, no fatalities associated with these adverse reactions were reported in COLAZAL (balsalazide) clinical trials. One case of Kawasaki-like syndrome which included hepatic function changes was also reported, however, this adverse reaction was not reported in COLAZAL (balsalazide) clinical trials.

Read the Colazal (balsalazide) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

DRUG INTERACTIONS

In an in vitro study using human liver microsomes, balsalazide and its metabolites [5- aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid (N-Ac-5-ASA), 4- aminobenzoyl-β-alanine (4-ABA) and N-acetyl-4-aminobenzoyl- β - alanine (N-Ac-4- ABA)] were not shown to inhibit the major CYP enzymes evaluated (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/5). Therefore, balsalazide and its metabolites are not expected to inhibit the metabolism of other drugs with are substrates of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4/5.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/3/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

WARNINGS

No information provided. Please see PRECAUTIONS below and SIDE EFFECTS.

PRECAUTIONS

Exacerbations of Colitis

In the adult clinical trials, 3 out of 259 patients reported exacerbation of the symptoms of ulcerative colitis. In the pediatric clinical trials, 4 out of 68 patients reported exacerbation of the symptoms of ulcerative colitis.

Observe patients closely for worsening of these symptoms while on treatment.

Pyloric Stenosis

Patients with pyloric stenosis may have prolonged gastric retention of COLAZAL (balsalazide) capsules.

Renal

Renal toxicity has been observed in animals and patients given other mesalamine products. Therefore, caution should be exercised when administering COLAZAL (balsalazide) to patients with known renal dysfunction or a history of renal disease. [See Nonclinical Toxicology]

Use in specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies were performed in rats and rabbits at oral doses up to 2 g/kg/day, 2.4 and 4.7 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area for the rat and rabbit, respectively, and revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to balsalazide disodium. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether balsalazide disodium is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when COLAZAL (balsalazide) is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Use of COLAZAL (balsalazide) in pediatric and adolescent patients 5 to 17 years of age for the treatment of mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis is supported by:

  • extrapolation of results from clinical studies that supported the approval of COLAZAL (balsalazide) for adults.
  • a clinical trial of 68 patients ages 5-17 years comparing two doses of COLAZAL (balsalazide) (6.75 g/day and 2.25 g/day), and
  • a pharmacokinetic study performed on a subset of the pediatric study population. [See Adverse Reactions, Clinical Pharmacology, and Clinical Studies].

Based on the limited data available, dosing can be initiated at either 6.75 or 2.25 g/day.

Safety and efficacy of COLAZAL (balsalazide) in pediatric patients below the age of 5 years have not been established.

Non Clinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

In a 24-month rat (Sprague Dawley) carcinogenicity study, oral (dietary) balsalazide disodium at doses up to 2 g/kg/day was not tumorigenic. For a 50-kg person of average height this dose represents 2.4 times the recommended human dose on a body surface area basis. Balsalazide disodium was not genotoxic in the following in vitro or in vivo tests: Ames test, human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration test, and mouse lymphoma cell (L5178Y/TK+/-) forward mutation test, or mouse micronucleus test. However, it was genotoxic in the in vitro Chinese hamster lung cell (CH V79/HGPRT) forward mutation test.

4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine, a metabolite of balsalazide disodium, was not genotoxic in the Ames test and the mouse lymphoma cell (L5178Y/TK+/-) forward mutation test but was positive in the human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration test. N-acetyl-4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine, a conjugated metabolite of balsalazide disodium, was not genotoxic in Ames test, the mouse lymphoma cell (L5178Y/TK+/-) forward mutation test, or the human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration test. Balsalazide disodium at oral doses up to 2 g/kg/day, 2.4 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area, was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance in rats.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/3/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OVERDOSE

No case of overdose has occurred with COLAZAL (balsalazide) . A 3-year-old boy is reported to have ingested 2 g of another mesalamine product. He was treated with ipecac and activated charcoal with no adverse reactions.

If an overdose occurs with COLAZAL (balsalazide) , treatment should be supportive, with particular attention to correction of electrolyte abnormalities.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Patients with hypersensitivity to salicylates or to any of the components of COLAZAL capsules or balsalazide metabolites. Hypersensitivity reactions may include, but are not limited to the following: anaphylaxis, bronchospasm, and skin reaction.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/3/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Balsalazide disodium is delivered intact to the colon where it is cleaved by bacterial azoreduction to release equimolar quantities of mesalamine, which is the therapeutically active portion of the molecule, and the 4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine carrier moiety. The carrier moiety released when balsalazide disodium is cleaved is only minimally absorbed and is largely inert.

The mechanism of action of 5-ASA is unknown, but appears to be local to the colonic mucosa rather than systemic. Mucosal production of arachidonic acid metabolites, both through the cyclooxygenase pathways, i.e., prostanoids, and through the lipoxygenase pathways, i.e., leukotrienes and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, is increased in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, and it is possible that 5-ASA diminishes inflammation by blocking production of arachidonic acid metabolites in the colon.

Pharmacokinetics

COLAZAL capsules contain a powder of balsalazide disodium that is insoluble in acid and designed to be delivered to the colon as the intact prodrug. Upon reaching the colon, bacterial azoreductases cleave the compound to release 5-ASA, the therapeutically active portion of the molecule, and 4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine. The 5-ASA is further metabolized to yield N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid (N-Ac-5-ASA), a second key metabolite.

Absorption

The plasma pharmacokinetics of balsalazide and its key metabolites from a crossover study in healthy volunteers are summarized in Table 3. In this study, a single oral dose of COLAZAL (balsalazide) 2.25 g was administered to healthy volunteers as intact capsules (3 x 750 mg) under fasting conditions, as intact capsules (3 x 750 mg) after a high-fat meal, and unencapuslated (3 x 750 mg) as sprinkles on applesauce.

Table 3: Plasma Pharmacokinetics for Balsalazide and Key Metabolites (5—ASA and N-Ac-5-ASA) with Administration of COLAZAL (balsalazide) Following a Fast, a High-Fat Meal, and Drug Contents Sprinkled on Applesauce (Mean ± SD)

  Fasting
n = 17
High-fat Meal
n = 17
Sprinkled
n = 17
Cmax (µg/mL)
Balsalazide 0.51 ± 0.32 0.45 ± 0.39 0.21 ± 0.12
5-ASA 0.22 ± 0.12 0.11 ± 0.136 0.29 ± 0.17
N-Ac-5-ASA 0.88 ± 0.39 0.64 ± 0.534 1.04 ± 0.57
AUClast (µg·hr/mL)
Balsalazide 1.35 ± 0.73 1.52 ± 1.01 0.87 ± 0.48
5-ASA 2.59 ± 1.46 2.10 ± 2.58 2.99 ± 1.70
N-Ac-5-ASA 17.8 ± 8.14 17.7 ± 13.7 20.0 ± 11.4
Tmax (h)
Balsalazide 0.8 ± 0.85 1.2 ± 1.11 1.6 ± 0.44
5-ASA 8.2 ± 1.98 22.0 ± 8.23 8.7 ± 1.99
N-Ac-5-ASA 9.9 ± 2.49 20.2 ± 8.94 10.8 ± 5.39

A relatively low systemic exposure was observed under all three administered conditions (fasting, fed with high-fat meal, sprinkled on applesauce), which reflects the variable, but minimal absorption of balsalazide disodium and its metabolites. The data indicate that both Cmax and AUClast were lower, while tmax was markedly prolonged, under fed (high-fat meal) compared to fasted conditions. Moreover, the data suggest that dosing balsalazide disodium as a sprinkle or as a capsule provides highly variable, but relatively similar mean pharmacokinetic parameter values. No inference can be made as to how the systemic exposure differences of balsalazide and its metabolites in this study might predict the clinical efficacy under different dosing conditions (i.e., fasted, fed with high-fat meal, or sprinkled on applesauce) since clinical efficacy after balsalazide disodium administration is presumed to be primarily due to the local effects of 5-ASA on the colonic mucosa.

In a separate study of adult patients with ulcerative colitis, who received balsalazide, 1.5 g twice daily, for over 1 year, systemic drug exposure, based on mean AUC values, was up to 60 times greater (0.008 µg·hr/mL to 0.480 µg·hr/mL) when compared to that obtained in healthy subjects who received the same dose.

Distribution

The binding of balsalazide to human plasma proteins was ≥99%.

Metabolism

The products of the azoreduction of this compound, 5-ASA and 4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine, and their N-acetylated metabolites have been identified in plasma, urine and feces.

Elimination

Following single-dose administration of 2.25 g COLAZAL (balsalazide) (three 750 mg capsules) under fasting conditions in healthy subjects, mean urinary recovery of balsalazide, 5-ASA, and N-Ac-5-ASA was 0.20%, 0.22% and 10.2%, respectively.

In a multiple-dose study in healthy subjects receiving a COLAZAL (balsalazide) dose of two 750 mg capsules twice daily (3 g/day) for 10 days, mean urinary recovery of balsalazide, 5-ASA, and N-Ac-5-ASA was 0.1%, 0%, and 11.3%, respectively. During this study, subjects received their morning dose 0.5 hours after being fed a standard meal, and subjects received their evening dose 2 hours after being fed a standard meal.

In a study with 10 healthy volunteers, 65% of a single 2.25-g dose of COLAZAL (balsalazide) was recovered as 5-ASA, 4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine, and the N-acetylated metabolites in feces, while <1% of the dose was recovered as parent compound.

In a study that examined the disposition of balsalazide in patients who were taking 3-6 g of COLAZAL (balsalazide) daily for more than 1 year and who were in remission from ulcerative colitis, less than 1% of an oral dose was recovered as intact balsalazide in the urine. Less than 4% of the dose was recovered as 5-ASA, while virtually no 4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine was detected in urine. The mean urinary recovery of N-Ac-5-ASA and N-acetyl-4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine comprised <16% and <12% of the balsalazide dose, respectively. No fecal recovery studies were performed in this population.

Pediatric Population

In studies of pediatric patients with mild-to-moderate active ulcerative colitis receiving three 750 mg COLAZAL (balsalazide) capsules 3 times daily (6.75 g/day) for 8 weeks, steady state was reached within 2 weeks, as observed in adult patients. Likewise, the pharmacokinetics of balsalazide, 5-ASA, and N-Ac-5-ASA were characterized by very large inter-patient variability, which is also similar to that seen in adult patients.

The pro-drug moiety, balsalazide, appeared to exhibit dose-independent (i.e., dose-linear) kinetics in children, and the systemic exposure parameters (Cmax and AUC 0-8) increased in an almost dose-proportional fashion after the 6.75 g/day versus the 2.25 g/day doses. However, the absolute magnitude of these exposure parameters was greater relative to adults. The Cmax and AUC0-8 observed in pediatric patients were 26% and 102% greater than those observed in adult patients at the 6.75 g/day dosage level. In contrast, the systemic exposure parameters for the active metabolites, 5-ASA and N-Ac-5-ASA, in pediatric patients increased in a less than dose-proportional manner after the 6.75 g/day dose versus the 2.25 g/day dose. Additionally, the magnitude of these exposure parameters was decreased for both metabolites relative to adults. For the metabolite of key safety concern from a systemic exposure perspective, 5-ASA, the Cmax and AUC0-8 observed in pediatric patients were 67% and 64% lower than those observed in adult patients at the 6.75 g/day dosage level. Likewise, for N-Ac-5-ASA, the Cmax and AUC0-8 observed in pediatric patients were 68% and 55% lower than those observed in adult patients at the 6.75 g/day dosage level.

All pharmacokinetic studies with COLAZAL (balsalazide) are characterized by large variability in the plasma concentration versus time profiles for balsalazide and its metabolites, thus half-life estimates of these analytes are indeterminate.

Animal Toxicology

Renal Toxicity

In animal studies conducted at doses up to 2000 mg/kg (approximately 21 times the recommended 6.75 g/day dose on a mg/kg basis for a 70 kg person), COLAZAL (balsalazide) demonstrated no nephrotoxic effects in rats or dogs.

Overdosage

A single oral dose of balsalazide disodium at 5 g/kg or 4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine, a metabolite of balsalazide disodium, at 1 g/kg was non-lethal in mice and rats. No symptoms of acute toxicity were seen at these doses.

Clinical Studies

Adult Studies

Two randomized, double-blind studies were conducted in adults. In the first trial, 103 patients with active mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with sigmoidoscopy findings of friable or spontaneously bleeding mucosa were randomized and treated with balsalazide 6.75 g/day or balsalazide 2.25 g/day. The primary efficacy endpoint was reduction of rectal bleeding and improvement of at least one of the other assessed symptoms (stool frequency, patient functional assessment, abdominal pain, sigmoidoscopic grade, and physician's global assessment [PGA]). Outcome assessment for rectal bleeding at each interim period (week 2, 4, and 8) encompassed a 4-day period (96 hours). Results demonstrated a statistically significant difference between high and low doses of COLAZAL (balsalazide) (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Percentage of Patients Improved at 8 weeks

Balsalazide Figure 1: Percentage of Patients Improved at 8 weeks

A second study, conducted in Europe, confirmed findings of symptomatic improvement.

Pediatric Studies

A clinical trial was conducted comparing two doses (6.75 g/day and 2.25 g/day) of COLAZAL (balsalazide) in 68 pediatric patients (age 5 to 17, 23 males and 45 females) with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis. 28 /33 (85%) patients randomized to 6.75 g/day and 25/35 (71%) patients randomized to 2.25 g/day completed the study. The primary endpoint for this study was the proportion of subjects with clinical improvement (defined as a reduction of at least 3 points in the Modified Sutherland Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index [MUCAI] from baseline to 8 weeks). Fifteen (45%) patients in the COLAZAL (balsalazide) 6.75 g/day group and 13 (37%) patients in the COLAZAL (balsalazide) 2.25 g/day group showed this clinical improvement. In both groups, patients with higher MUCAI total scores at baseline were likely to experience greater improvement.

Rectal bleeding improved in 64% of patients treated with COLAZAL (balsalazide) 6.75 g/day and 54% of patients treated with COLAZAL (balsalazide) 2.25 g/day. Colonic mucosal appearance upon endoscopy improved in 61% of patients treated with COLAZAL (balsalazide) 6.75 g/day and 46% of patients treated with COLAZAL (balsalazide) 2.25 g/day.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/3/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

PATIENT INFORMATION

Important Precautions Regarding COLAZAL (balsalazide)

  • Instruct patients not to take COLAZAL (balsalazide) if they have a hypersensitivity to salicylates (e.g., aspirin).
  • Patients should be instructed to contact their health care provider under the following circumstances:
    • If they experience a worsening of their ulcerative colitis symptoms.
    • If they are diagnosed with pyloric stenosis, because COLAZAL (balsalazide) capsules may be slow to pass through their digestive tract.
    • If they are diagnosed with renal dysfunction. Damage to the kidney has been observed in people given medications similar to COLAZAL (balsalazide) .

What Patients Should Know About Adverse Reactions

  • In adult clinical trials the most common adverse reactions were headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, respiratory infection, and arthralgia.
  • In the pediatric clinical trial the most common adverse reactions were headache, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, nasopharyngitis, and pyrexia.
  • Inform patients that this listing of adverse reactions is not complete and not all adverse reactions can be anticipated. If appropriate, a more comprehensive list of adverse reactions can be discussed with patients.

What Patients Should Know About Taking COLAZAL (balsalazide) with Other Medication

  • Based upon limited studies conducted in a test tube, COLAZAL (balsalazide) is not believed to interfere with other drugs by preventing how the liver functions. However, as the studies were limited in scope, you should always consult your doctor and discuss potential interactions prior to initiating any new drug.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/3/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

>

PATIENT INFORMATION

Important Precautions Regarding COLAZAL (balsalazide)

  • Instruct patients not to take COLAZAL (balsalazide) if they have a hypersensitivity to salicylates (e.g., aspirin).
  • Patients should be instructed to contact their health care provider under the following circumstances:
    • If they experience a worsening of their ulcerative colitis symptoms.
    • If they are diagnosed with pyloric stenosis, because COLAZAL (balsalazide) capsules may be slow to pass through their digestive tract.
    • If they are diagnosed with renal dysfunction. Damage to the kidney has been observed in people given medications similar to COLAZAL (balsalazide) .

What Patients Should Know About Adverse Reactions

  • In adult clinical trials the most common adverse reactions were headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, respiratory infection, and arthralgia.
  • In the pediatric clinical trial the most common adverse reactions were headache, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, nasopharyngitis, and pyrexia.
  • Inform patients that this listing of adverse reactions is not complete and not all adverse reactions can be anticipated. If appropriate, a more comprehensive list of adverse reactions can be discussed with patients.

What Patients Should Know About Taking COLAZAL (balsalazide) with Other Medication

  • Based upon limited studies conducted in a test tube, COLAZAL (balsalazide) is not believed to interfere with other drugs by preventing how the liver functions. However, as the studies were limited in scope, you should always consult your doctor and discuss potential interactions prior to initiating any new drug.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/3/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Disclaimer

Colazal Consumer

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

BALSALAZIDE - ORAL

(bal-SAL-a-zide)

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Colazal

USES: Balsalazide is used to treat a certain bowel disease (ulcerative colitis). It helps to reduce symptoms of ulcerative colitis such as diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and stomach pain. Balsalazide is an anti-inflammatory drug that works by decreasing swelling in the colon.

OTHER USES: This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional. Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.

This drug may also be used to treat Crohn's disease.

HOW TO USE: This medicine comes with a Patient Information Leaflet. Read it carefully. Ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist any questions that you may have about this medicine.

Take this medication by mouth with or without food, usually 3 times daily or as directed by your doctor.

Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to therapy.

Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same times each day.

Inform your doctor if your condition worsens or does not improve after several weeks.

Disclaimer

Colazal Consumer (continued)

SIDE EFFECTS: Headache, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, abdominal pain, trouble sleeping, or loss of appetite may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Infrequently, balsalazide can worsen ulcerative colitis. Tell your doctor immediately if your symptoms worsen after starting this medication (e.g., increased abdominal pain, rectal bleeding).

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: mental/mood changes, change in the amount of urine, yellowing eyes/skin, dark urine, unusual/extreme tiredness, severe stomach/abdominal pain, persistent nausea/vomiting, signs of infection (e.g., fever, persistent sore throat, burning/painful urination), easy bruising/bleeding, fast/pounding heartbeat.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Read the Colazal (balsalazide) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

PRECAUTIONS: Before taking balsalazide, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to aspirin, NSAIDs (e.g., ibuprofen, celecoxib), or salicylates (e.g., salsalate); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: stomach/intestinal blockage (e.g., pyloric stenosis), liver disease, kidney disease.

This medication is similar to aspirin. Children and teenagers should not take aspirin or aspirin-related medications (e.g., salicylates) if they have chickenpox, flu, or any undiagnosed illness, or if they have just been given a live virus vaccine (e.g., varicella vaccine), without first consulting a doctor about Reye's syndrome, a rare but serious illness.

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is not known if this medication passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Disclaimer

Colazal Consumer (continued)

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with your doctor or pharmacist first.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and nonprescription/herbal products you may use, especially of: antibiotics, azathioprine, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., acetazolamide), certain drugs to treat gout (e.g., probenecid), drugs to treat diabetes (e.g., sulfonylureas including glipizide, glyburide), 6-mercaptopurine, mesalamine, methotrexate.

This document does not contain all possible interactions. Therefore, before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the products you use. Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist.

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents should call the US National Poison Hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents should call a provincial poison control center.

NOTES: Do not share this medication with others.

Laboratory and/or medical tests (e.g., liver function tests) may be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

STORAGE: Store at room temperature at 68-77 degrees F (20-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Brief storage between 59-86 degrees F (15-30 degrees C) is permitted. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

Information last revised May 2010. Copyright(c) 2010 First Databank, Inc.

Colazal Patient Information Including Side Effects

Brand Names: Colazal

Generic Name: balsalazide (Pronunciation: bal SAL a zide)

What is balsalazide (Colazal)?

Balsalazide reduces the actions of chemicals in the body that cause inflammation in the colon (bowel).

Balsalazide is used to treat active ulcerative colitis.

Balsalazide may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Balsalazide 750 mg-APO

oblong, white, imprinted with APO, B750

Balsalazide 750 mg-MYL

orange, imprinted with MYLAN 6750

Balsalazide 750 mg-ROX

orange, imprinted with 54 795

What are the possible side effects of balsalazide (Colazal)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using balsalazide and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • worsening colitis symptoms, such as fever, stomach pain, cramps, or bloody diarrhea;
  • bleeding from your rectum; or
  • pale skin, easy bruising, weakness.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • headache, sleep problems (insomnia);
  • nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea;
  • runny nose, cold symptoms; or
  • joint pain.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Colazal (balsalazide) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

What is the most important information I should know about balsalazide (Colazal)?

Do not use this medication if you are allergic to balsalazide or to salicylates (such as aspirin, Disalcid, Doan's Pills, Dolobid, Salflex, Tricosal, and others).

Before taking balsalazide, tell your doctor if you have a stomach disorder called pyloric stenosis, kidney disease, or an infection that you are treating with antibiotics.

Tell your doctor if your symptoms get worse after you start taking balsalazide.

Balsalazide may interact with antibiotics. Tell your doctor if you need to take an antibiotic during treatment with balsalazide.

Side Effects Centers

Colazal Patient Information including How Should I Take

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking balsalazide (Colazal)?

Do not use this medication if you are allergic to balsalazide or to salicylates (such as aspirin, Disalcid, Doan's Pills, Dolobid, Salflex, Tricosal, and others).

If you have any of these other conditions, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely take balsalazide:

  • a stomach disorder called pyloric stenosis;
  • kidney disease; or
  • any infection that you are treating with antibiotics.

FDA pregnancy category B. This medication is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.

It is not known whether balsalazide passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I take balsalazide (Colazal)?

Take this medication exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Take this medicine with a full glass of water.

Balsalazide can be taken with or without food.

Balsalazide is for short-term use only. Do not take this medication for longer than 12 weeks unless your doctor has told you to.

Tell your doctor if your symptoms get worse after you start taking balsalazide.

Store balsalazide at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Side Effects Centers

Colazal Patient Information including If I Miss a Dose

What happens if I miss a dose (Colazal)?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and take the medicine at your next regularly scheduled time. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose (Colazal)?

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine. Symptoms of a balsalazide overdose are not known.

What should I avoid while taking balsalazide (Colazal)?

Follow your doctor's instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity.

What other drug's will affect balsalazide (Colazal)?

Balsalazide may interact with antibiotics. Tell your doctor if you need to take an antibiotic during treatment with balsalazide.

There may be other drugs that can interact with balsalazide. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you use. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about balsalazide.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 2.02. Revision date: 12/15/2010.

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