Benazepril (Lotensin)
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Benazepril (Lotensin)

Lotensin®
(benazepril hydrochloride) Tablets

WARNING

FETAL TOXICITY

When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Lotensin as soon as possible.

Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. See WARNINGS: Fetal Toxicity

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Benazepril hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline powder, soluble ( > 100 mg/mL) in water, in ethanol, and in methanol. Its chemical name is 3-[[1-(ethoxy-carbonyl)-3-phenyl-(1S)propyl]amino]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1H-1-(3S)-benzazepine-1-acetic acid monohydrochloride; its structural formula is

Lotensin® (benazepril hydrochloride) Structural Formula Illustration

Its empirical formula is C24H28N2O5•HCl, and its molecular weight is 460.96.

Benazeprilat, the active metabolite of benazepril, is a non-sulfhydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Benazepril is converted to benazeprilat by hepatic cleavage of the ester group.

Lotensin is supplied as tablets containing 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg of benazepril hydrochloride for oral administration. The inactive ingredients are colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hydrogenated castor oil (5-mg, 10-mg, and 20-mg tablets), hypromellose, iron oxides, lactose, magnesium stearate (40-mg tablets), microcrystalline cellulose, polysorbate 80, propylene glycol (5-mg and 40-mg tablets), starch, talc, and titanium dioxide.

What are the possible side effects of benazepril (Lotensin)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; severe stomach pain; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • feeling light-headed, fainting;
  • urinating more or less than usual, or not at all;
  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms;
  • pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding;
  • severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash;
  • tired feeling, muscle weakness, and pounding or uneven...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Lotensin »

What are the precautions when taking benazepril (Lotensin)?

Before taking benazepril, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other ACE inhibitors (such as lisinopril); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: history of an allergic reaction which included swelling of the face/lips/tongue/throat (angioedema), blood filtering procedures (such as LDL apheresis, dialysis), high level of potassium in the blood, collagen vascular disease (such as lupus, scleroderma).

This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness...

Read All Potential Precautions of Lotensin »

Last reviewed on RxList: 1/27/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

INDICATIONS

Lotensin is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with thiazide diuretics.

In using Lotensin, consideration should be given to the fact that another angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, has caused agranulocytosis, particularly in patients with renal impairment or collagen-vascular disease. Available data are insufficient to show that Lotensin does not have a similar risk (see WARNINGS).

Black patients receiving ACE inhibitors have been reported to have a higher incidence of angioedema compared to nonblacks. It should also be noted that in controlled clinical trials ACE inhibitors have an effect on blood pressure that is less in black patients than in nonblacks.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Hypertension

Adults

The recommended initial dose for patients not receiving a diuretic is 10 mg once a day. The usual maintenance dosage range is 20-40 mg per day administered as a single dose or in two equally divided doses. A dose of 80 mg gives an increased response, but experience with this dose is limited. The divided regimen was more effective in controlling trough (pre-dosing) blood pressure than the same dose given as a once-daily regimen. Dosage adjustment should be based on measurement of peak (2-6 hours after dosing) and trough responses. If a once-daily regimen does not give adequate trough response, an increase in dosage or divided administration should be considered. If blood pressure is not controlled with Lotensin alone, a diuretic can be added.

Total daily doses above 80 mg have not been evaluated.

Concomitant administration of Lotensin with potassium supplements, potassium salt substitutes, or potassium-sparing diuretics can lead to increases of serum potassium (see PRECAUTIONS).

In patients who are currently being treated with a diuretic, symptomatic hypotension occasionally can occur following the initial dose of Lotensin. To reduce the likelihood of hypotension, the diuretic should, if possible, be discontinued two to three days prior to beginning therapy with Lotensin (see WARNINGS). Then, if blood pressure is not controlled with Lotensin alone, diuretic therapy should be resumed.

If the diuretic cannot be discontinued, an initial dose of 5 mg Lotensin should be used to avoid excessive hypotension.

Pediatrics

In children, doses of Lotensin between 0.1 and 0.6 mg/kg once daily have been studied, and doses greater than 0.1 mg/kg were shown to reduce blood pressure (see Pharmacodynamics). Based on this, the recommended starting dose of Lotensin is 0.2 mg/kg once per day as monotherapy. Doses above 0.6 mg/kg (or in excess of 40 mg daily) have not been studied in pediatric patients.

For pediatric patients who cannot swallow tablets, or for whom the calculated dosage (mg/kg) does not correspond to the available tablet strengths for Lotensin, follow the suspension preparation instructions below to administer benazepril HCl as a suspension.

Treatment with Lotensin is not advised for children below the age of 6 years (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use) and in pediatric patients with glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL, as there are insufficient data available to support a dosing recommendation in these groups.

For Hypertensive Patients with Renal Impairment

For patients with a creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min/1.73 m² (serum creatinine > 3 mg/dL), the recommended initial dose is 5 mg Lotensin once daily. Dosage may be titrated upward until blood pressure is controlled or to a maximum total daily dose of 40 mg (see WARNINGS).

Preparation of Suspension (for 150 mL of a 2 mg/mL suspension)

Add 75 mL of Ora-Plus®* oral suspending vehicle to an amber polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle containing fifteen Lotensin 20 mg tablets, and shake for at least 2 minutes. Allow the suspension to stand for a minimum of 1 hour. After the standing time, shake the suspension for a minimum of 1 additional minute. Add 75 mL of Ora-Sweet®* oral syrup vehicle to the bottle and shake the suspension to disperse the ingredients. The suspension should be refrigerated at 2-8°C (36-46°F) and can be stored for up to 30 days in the PET bottle with a child-resistant screw-cap closure. Shake the suspension before each use.

HOW SUPPLIED

Lotensin is available in tablets of 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg, packaged with a desiccant in bottles of 100 tablets.

Each tablet is imprinted with LOTENSIN on one side and the tablet strength (“5,” “10,” “20,” or “40”) on the other.

The National Drug Codes for the various packages are

Tablet

Dose Tablet Color Bottle of 100
5 mg
light yellow
NDC 0078-0447-05
10 mg
dark yellow
NDC 0078-0448-05
20 mg
pink
NDC 0078-0449-05
40 mg
dark rose
NDC 0078-0450-05

Storage

Do not store above 30°C (86°F). Protect from moisture.

Dispense in tight container (USP).

*Ora-Plus®contains carrageenan, citric acid, methylparaben, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, potassium sorbate, simethicone, sodium phosphate monobasic, xanthan gum, and water. Ora-Sweet®contains citric acid, berry citrus flavorant, glycerin, methylparaben, potassium sorbate, sodium phosphate monobasic, sorbitol, sucrose, and water.

Manufactured by: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation Suffern, New York 10901. Distributed by: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation East Hanover, New Jersey 07936. 01/2012

Last reviewed on RxList: 1/27/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

SIDE EFFECTS

Lotensin has been evaluated for safety in over 6000 patients with hypertension; over 700 of these patients were treated for at least one year. The overall incidence of reported adverse events was comparable in Lotensin and placebo patients.

The reported side effects were generally mild and transient, and there was no relation between side effects and age, duration of therapy, or total dosage within the range of 2 to 80 mg. Discontinuation of therapy because of a side effect was required in approximately 5% of U.S. patients treated with Lotensin and in 3% of patients treated with placebo.

The most common reasons for discontinuation were headache (0.6%) and cough (0.5%) (see PRECAUTIONS, Cough).

The side effects considered possibly or probably related to study drug that occurred in U.S. placebo-controlled trials in more than 1% of patients treated with Lotensin are shown below.

PATIENTS IN U.S. PLACEBO-CONTROLLED STUDIES

  LOTENSIN
(N=964)
PLACEBO
(N=496)
N % N %
Headache
60
6.2
21
4.2
Dizziness
35
3.6
12
2.4
Fatigue
23
2.4
11
2.2
Somnolence
15
1.6
2
0.4
Postural Dizziness
14
1.5
1
0.2
Nausea
13
1.3
5
1.0
Cough
12
1.2
5
1.0

Other adverse experiences reported in controlled clinical trials(in less than 1% of benazepril patients), and rarer events seen in post-marketing experience, include the following (in some, a causal relationship to drug use is uncertain):

Cardiovascular

Symptomatic hypotension was seen in 0.3% of patients, postural hypotension in 0.4%, and syncope in 0.1%; these reactions led to discontinuation of therapy in 4 patients who had received benazepril monotherapy and in 9 patients who had received benazepril with hydrochlorothiazide (see PRECAUTIONS and WARNINGS). Other reports included angina pectoris, palpitations, and peripheral edema.

Renal

Of hypertensive patients with no apparent preexisting renal disease, about 2% have sustained increases in serum creatinine to at least 150% of their baseline values while receiving Lotensin, but most of these increases have disappeared despite continuing treatment. A much smaller fraction of these patients (less than 0.1%) developed simultaneous (usually transient) increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine.

Angioedema

Angioedema has been reported in patients receiving ACE inhibitors. During clinical trials in hypertensive patients with benazepril, 0.5% of patients experienced edema of the lips or face without other manifestations of angioedema. Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema and/or shock may be fatal. If angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, or glottis and/or larynx occurs, treatment with Lotensin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted immediately (see WARNINGS).

Dermatologic

Stevens-Johnson syndrome, pemphigus, apparent hypersensitivity reactions (manifested by dermatitis, pruritus, or rash), photosensitivity, and flushing.

Gastrointestinal

Pancreatitis, constipation, gastritis, vomiting, and melena.

Hematologic

Thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia.

Neurologic and Psychiatric

Anxiety, decreased libido, hypertonia, insomnia, nervousness, and paresthesia.

Other

Asthma, bronchitis, dyspnea, sinusitis, urinary tract infection, frequent urination, infection, arthritis, impotence, alopecia, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia, and sweating.

Another potentially important adverse experience, eosinophilic pneumonitis, has been attributed to other ACE inhibitors.

The following adverse events of unknown frequency have been reported during post-marketing use of benazepril: small bowel angioedema, anaphylactoid reactions, hyperkalemia, agranulocytosis, and neutropenia.

Pediatric Patients: The adverse experience profile for pediatric patients appears to be similar to that seen in adult patients. Infants below the age of 1 year should not be given ACE inhibitors due to concerns over possible effects on kidney development.

The long-term effects of benazepril on growth and development have not been studied.

Clinical Laboratory Test Findings

Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen

Of hypertensive patients with no apparent preexisting renal disease, about 2% have sustained increases in serum creatinine to at least 150% of their baseline values while receiving Lotensin, but most of these increases have disappeared despite continuing treatment. A much smaller fraction of these patients (less than 0.1%) developed simultaneous (usually transient) increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. None of these increases required discontinuation of treatment. Increases in these laboratory values are more likely to occur in patients with renal insufficiency or those pretreated with a diuretic and, based on experience with other ACE inhibitors, would be expected to be especially likely in patients with renal artery stenosis (see PRECAUTIONS, General).

Potassium

Since benazepril decreases aldosterone secretion, elevation of serum potassium can occur. Potassium supplements and potassium-sparing diuretics should be given with caution, and the patient's serum potassium should be monitored frequently (see PRECAUTIONS).

Hemoglobin

Decreases in hemoglobin (a low value and a decrease of 5 g/dL) were rare, occurring in only 1 of 2,014 patients receiving Lotensin alone and in 1 of 1,357 patients receiving Lotensin plus a diuretic. No U.S. patients discontinued treatment because of decreases in hemoglobin.

Other (causal relationships unknown)

Clinically important changes in standard laboratory tests were rarely associated with Lotensin administration. Elevations of uric acid, blood glucose, serum bilirubin, and liver enzymes (see WARNINGS) have been reported, as have scattered incidents of hyponatremia, electrocardiographic changes, leukopenia, eosinophilia, and proteinuria. In U.S. trials, less than 0.5% of patients discontinued treatment because of laboratory abnormalities.

Read the Lotensin (benazepril) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Diuretics

Patients on diuretics, especially those in whom diuretic therapy was recently instituted, may occasionally experience an excessive reduction of blood pressure after initiation of therapy with Lotensin. The possibility of hypotensive effects with Lotensin can be minimized by either discontinuing the diuretic or increasing the salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with Lotensin. If this is not possible, the starting dose should be reduced (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Potassium Supplements and Potassium-Sparing Diuretics

Lotensin can attenuate potassium loss caused by thiazide diuretics. Potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene, and others) or potassium supplements can increase the risk of hyperkalemia. Therefore, if concomitant use of such agents is indicated, they should be given with caution, and the patient's serum potassium should be monitored frequently.

Oral Anticoagulants

Interaction studies with warfarin and acenocoumarol failed to identify any clinically important effects on the serum concentrations or clinical effects of these anticoagulants.

Lithium

Increased serum lithium levels and symptoms of lithium toxicity have been reported in patients receiving ACE inhibitors (including benazepril) during therapy with lithium. These drugs should be coadministered with caution, and frequent monitoring of serum lithium levels is recommended. If a diuretic is also used, the risk of lithium toxicity may be increased.

Gold

Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy.

Anti-diabetics

In rare cases, diabetic patients receiving an ACE inhibitor (including benazepril) concomitantly with insulin or oral anti-diabetics may develop hypoglycemia. Such patients should therefore be advised about the possibility of hypoglycemic reactions and should be monitored accordingly.

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors)

In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with ACE inhibitors, including benazepril, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving benazepril and NSAID therapy.

The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors, including benazepril, may be attenuated by NSAIDs.

Other

No clinically important pharmacokinetic interactions occurred when Lotensin was administered concomitantly with hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, furosemide, digoxin, propranolol, atenolol, or cimetidine.

Lotensin has been used concomitantly with beta-adrenergic-blocking agents, calcium-channelblocking agents, diuretics, digoxin, and hydralazine, without evidence of clinically important adverse interactions. Benazepril, like other ACE inhibitors, has had less than additive effects with beta-adrenergic blockers, presumably because both drugs lower blood pressure by inhibiting parts of the renin-angiotensin system.

Last reviewed on RxList: 1/27/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

WARNINGS

Anaphylactoid and Possibly Related Reactions

Presumably because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving ACE inhibitors (including Lotensin) may be subject to a variety of adverse reactions, some of them serious.

Head and Neck Angioedema

Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and larynx has been reported in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. In U.S. clinical trials, symptoms consistent with angioedema were seen in none of the subjects who received placebo and in about 0.5% of the subjects who received Lotensin. Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema can be fatal. If laryngeal stridor or angioedema of the face, tongue, or glottis occurs, treatment with Lotensin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted immediately. Where there is involvement of the tongue, glottis, or larynx, likely to cause airway obstruction, appropriate therapy, e.g., subcutaneous epinephrine injection 1:1000 (0.3 mL to 0.5 mL) should be promptly administered (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Intestinal Angioedema

Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.

Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization

Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions were avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they reappeared upon inadvertent rechallenge.

Anaphylactoid Reactions During Membrane Exposure

Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption (a procedure dependent upon devices not approved in the United States).

Hypotension

Lotensin can cause symptomatic hypotension. Like other ACE inhibitors, benazepril has been only rarely associated with hypotension in uncomplicated hypertensive patients. Symptomatic hypotension is most likely to occur in patients who have been volume-and/or salt-depleted as a result of prolonged diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, dialysis, diarrhea, or vomiting. Volume-and/or salt-depletion should be corrected before initiating therapy with Lotensin.

In patients with congestive heart failure, with or without associated renal insufficiency, ACE inhibitor therapy may cause excessive hypotension, which may be associated with oliguria or azotemia and, rarely, with acute renal failure and death. In such patients, Lotensin therapy should be started under close medical supervision; they should be followed closely for the first 2 weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of benazepril or diuretic is increased.

If hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in a supine position, and, if necessary, treated with intravenous infusion of physiological saline. Lotensin treatment usually can be continued following restoration of blood pressure and volume.

Neutropenia/Agranulocytosis

Another angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, has been shown to cause agranulocytosis and bone marrow depression, rarely in uncomplicated patients, but more frequently in patients with renal impairment, especially if they also have a collagen-vascular disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma. Available data from clinical trials of benazepril are insufficient to show that benazepril does not cause agranulocytosis at similar rates. Monitoring of white blood cell counts should be considered in patients with collagen-vascular disease, especially if the disease is associated with impaired renal function.

Fetal toxicity

Pregnancy category D

Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Lotensin as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the reninangiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus.

In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue Lotensin, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to Lotensin for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. [see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use]

No teratogenic effects of Lotensin were seen in studies of pregnant rats, mice, and rabbits. On a mg/m² basis, the doses used in these studies were 60 times (in rats), 9 times (in mice), and more than 0.8 times (in rabbits) the maximum recommended human dose (assuming a 50-kg woman). On a mg/kg basis these multiples are 300 times (in rats), 90 times (in mice), and more than 3 times (in rabbits) the maximum recommended human dose.

Hepatic Failure

Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis and (sometimes) death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical follow-up.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Impaired Renal Function

As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals. In patients with severe congestive heart failure whose renal function may depend on the activity of the reninangiotensin-aldosterone system, treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, including Lotensin, may be associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and (rarely) with acute renal failure and/or death. In a small study of hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis in a solitary kidney or bilateral renal artery stenosis, treatment with Lotensin was associated with increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine; these increases were reversible upon discontinuation of Lotensin or diuretic therapy, or both. When such patients are treated with ACE inhibitors, renal function should be monitored during the first few weeks of therapy. Some hypertensive patients with no apparent preexisting renal vascular disease have developed increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, usually minor and transient, especially when Lotensin has been given concomitantly with a diuretic. This is more likely to occur in patients with preexisting renal impairment. Dosage reduction of Lotensin and/or discontinuation of the diuretic may be required. Evaluation of the hypertensive patient should always include assessment of renal function (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Hyperkalemia

In clinical trials, hyperkalemia (serum potassium at least 0.5 mEq/L greater than the upper limit of normal) occurred in approximately 1% of hypertensive patients receiving Lotensin. In most cases, these were isolated values which resolved despite continued therapy. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes, which should be used cautiously, if at all, with Lotensin (see DRUG INTERACTIONS).

Cough

Presumably due to the inhibition of the degradation of endogenous bradykinin, persistent nonproductive cough has been reported with all ACE inhibitors, always resolving after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough.

Impaired Liver Function

In patients with hepatic dysfunction due to cirrhosis, levels of benazeprilat are essentially unaltered (see WARNINGS, Hepatic Failure).

Surgery/Anesthesia

In patients undergoing surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, benazepril will block the angiotensin II formation that could otherwise occur secondary to compensatory renin release. Hypotension that occurs as a result of this mechanism can be corrected by volume expansion.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No evidence of carcinogenicity was found when benazepril was administered to rats and mice for up to two years at doses of up to 150 mg/kg/day. When compared on the basis of body weights, this dose is 110 times the maximum recommended human dose. When compared on the basis of body surface areas, this dose is 18 and 9 times (rats and mice, respectively) the maximum recommended human dose (calculations assume a patient weight of 60 kg). No mutagenic activity was detected in the Ames test in bacteria (with or without metabolic activation), in an in vitro test for forward mutations in cultured mammalian cells, or in a nucleus anomaly test. In doses of 50-500 mg/kg/day (6-60 times the maximum recommended human dose based on mg/m² comparison and 37-375 times the maximum recommended human dose based on a mg/kg comparison), Lotensin had no adverse effect on the reproductive performance of male and female rats.

Nursing Mothers

Minimal amounts of unchanged benazepril and of benazeprilat are excreted into the breast milk of lactating women treated with benazepril. A newborn child ingesting entirely breast milk would receive less than 0.1% of the mg/kg maternal dose of benazepril and benazeprilat.

Geriatric Use

Of the total number of patients who received benazepril in U.S. clinical studies of Lotensin, 18% were 65 or older while 2% were 75 or older. No overall differences in effectiveness or safety were observed between these patients and younger patients, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Benazepril and benazeprilat are substantially excreted by the kidney. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Pediatric Use

Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to Lotensin

If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. Benazepril, which crosses the placenta, can theoretically be removed from the neonatal circulation by these means; there are occasional reports of benefit from these maneuvers with another ACE inhibitor, but experience is limited.

The antihypertensive effects of Lotensin have been evaluated in a double-blind study in pediatric patients 7 to 16 years of age (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacodynamics, Hypertension). The pharmacokinetics of Lotensin have been evaluated in pediatric patients 6 to 16 years of age (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism). Lotensin was generally well tolerated and adverse effects were similar to those described in adults. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS: Pediatric Patients).

Treatment with Lotensin is not recommended in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age (see ADVERSE REACTIONS), and in children with glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min as there are insufficient data available to support a dosing recommendation in these groups. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism, In Pediatric Patients and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

Last reviewed on RxList: 1/27/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OVERDOSE

Single oral doses of 3 g/kg benazepril were associated with significant lethality in mice. Rats, however, tolerated single oral doses of up to 6 g/kg. Reduced activity was seen at 1 g/kg in mice and at 5 g/kg in rats. Human overdoses of benazepril have not been reported, but the most common manifestation of human benazepril overdosage is likely to be hypotension.

Laboratory determinations of serum levels of benazepril and its metabolites are not widely available, and such determinations have, in any event, no established role in the management of benazepril overdose.

No data are available to suggest physiological maneuvers (e.g., maneuvers to change the pH of the urine) that might accelerate elimination of benazepril and its metabolites. Benazepril is only slightly dialyzable, but dialysis might be considered in overdosed patients with severely impaired renal function (see WARNINGS).

Angiotensin II could presumably serve as a specific antagonist-antidote in the setting of benazepril overdose, but angiotensin II is essentially unavailable outside of scattered research facilities. Because the hypotensive effect of benazepril is achieved through vasodilation and effective hypovolemia, it is reasonable to treat benazepril overdose by infusion of normal saline solution.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Lotensin is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to this product or to any other ACE inhibitor.

Lotensin is also contraindicated in patients with a history of angioedema with or without previous ACE inhibitor treatment.

Last reviewed on RxList: 1/27/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Benazepril and benazeprilat inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in human subjects and animals. ACE is a peptidyl dipeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor substance, angiotensin II. Angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex.

Inhibition of ACE results in decreased plasma angiotensin II, which leads to decreased vasopressor activity and to decreased aldosterone secretion. The latter decrease may result in a small increase of serum potassium. Hypertensive patients treated with Lotensin alone for up to 52 weeks had elevations of serum potassium of up to 0.2 mEq/L. Similar patients treated with Lotensin and hydrochlorothiazide for up to 24 weeks had no consistent changes in their serum potassium (see PRECAUTIONS).

Removal of angiotensin II negative feedback on renin secretion leads to increased plasma renin activity. In animal studies, benazepril had no inhibitory effect on the vasopressor response to angiotensin II and did not interfere with the hemodynamic effects of the autonomic neurotransmitters acetylcholine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.

ACE is identical to kininase, an enzyme that degrades bradykinin. Whether increased levels of bradykinin, a potent vasodepressor peptide, play a role in the therapeutic effects of Lotensin remains to be elucidated.

While the mechanism through which benazepril lowers blood pressure is believed to be primarily suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, benazepril has an antihypertensive effect even in patients with low-renin hypertension (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE).

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism

Following oral administration of Lotensin, peak plasma concentrations of benazepril are reached within 0.5-1.0 hours. The extent of absorption is at least 37% as determined by urinary recovery and is not significantly influenced by the presence of food in the GI tract.

Cleavage of the ester group (primarily in the liver) converts benazepril to its active metabolite, benazeprilat. Peak plasma concentrations of benazeprilat are reached 1-2 hours after drug intake in the fasting state and 2-4 hours after drug intake in the nonfasting state. The serum protein binding of benazepril is about 96.7% and that of benazeprilat about 95.3%, as measured by equilibrium dialysis; on the basis of in vitro studies, the degree of protein binding should be unaffected by age, hepatic dysfunction, or concentration (over the concentration range of 0.24-23.6 μmol/L).

Benazepril is almost completely metabolized to benazeprilat, which has much greater ACE inhibitory activity than benazepril, and to the glucuronide conjugates of benazepril and benazeprilat. Only trace amounts of an administered dose of Lotensin can be recovered in the urine as unchanged benazepril, while about 20% of the dose is excreted as benazeprilat, 4% as benazepril glucuronide, and 8% as benazeprilat glucuronide.

The kinetics of benazepril are approximately dose-proportional within the dosage range of 10-80 mg.

In adults, the effective half-life of accumulation of benazeprilat following multiple dosing of benazepril hydrochloride is 10-11 hours. Thus, steady-state concentrations of benazeprilat should be reached after 2 or 3 doses of benazepril hydrochloride given once daily.

The kinetics did not change, and there was no significant accumulation during chronic administration (28 days) of once-daily doses between 5 mg and 20 mg. Accumulation ratios based on AUC and urinary recovery of benazeprilat were 1.19 and 1.27, respectively.

Benazepril and benazeprilat are cleared predominantly by renal excretion in healthy subjects with normal renal function. Nonrenal (i.e., biliary) excretion accounts for approximately 11%-12% of benazeprilat excretion in healthy subjects. In patients with renal failure, biliary clearance may compensate to an extent for deficient renal clearance.

In patients with renal insufficiency, the disposition of benazepril and benazeprilat in patients with mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance > 30 mL/min) is similar to that in patients with normal renal function. In patients with creatinine clearance ≤ 30 mL/min, peak benazeprilat levels and the initial (alpha phase) half-life increase, and time to steady state may be delayed (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

When dialysis was started 2 hours after ingestion of 10 mg of benazepril, approximately 6% of benazeprilat was removed in 4 hours of dialysis. The parent compound, benazepril, was not detected in the dialysate.

In patients with hepatic insufficiency (due to cirrhosis), the pharmacokinetics of benazeprilat are essentially unaltered. The pharmacokinetics of benazepril and benazeprilat do not appear to be influenced by age.

In pediatric patients, (N=45) hypertensive, age 6 to 16 years, given multiple daily doses of Lotensin (0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg), the clearance of benazeprilat for children 6 to 12 years old was 0.35 L/hr/kg, more than twice that of healthy adults receiving a single dose of 10 mg (0.13 L/hr/kg). In adolescents, it was 0.17 L/hr/kg, 27% higher than that of healthy adults. The terminal elimination half-life of benazeprilat in pediatric patients was around 5 hours, one-third that observed in adults.

Pharmacodynamics

Single and multiple doses of 10 mg or more of Lotensin cause inhibition of plasma ACE activity by at least 80%-90% for at least 24 hours after dosing. Pressor responses to exogenous angiotensin I were inhibited by 60%-90% (up to 4 hours post-dose) at the 10-mg dose.

Hypertension

Adult

Administration of Lotensin to patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension results in a reduction of both supine and standing blood pressure to about the same extent with no compensatory tachycardia. Symptomatic postural hypotension is infrequent, although it can occur in patients who are salt- and/or volume-depleted (see WARNINGS).

In single-dose studies, Lotensin lowered blood pressure within 1 hour, with peak reductions achieved 2-4 hours after dosing. The antihypertensive effect of a single dose persisted for 24 hours. In multiple-dose studies, once-daily doses of 20-80 mg decreased seated pressure (systolic/diastolic) 24 hours after dosing by about 6-12/4-7 mmHg. The trough values represent reductions of about 50% of that seen at peak.

Four dose-response studies using once-daily dosing were conducted in 470 mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients not using diuretics. The minimal effective once-daily dose of Lotensin was 10 mg; but further falls in blood pressure, especially at morning trough, were seen with higher doses in the studied dosing range (10-80 mg). In studies comparing the same daily dose of Lotensin given as a single morning dose or as a twice-daily dose, blood pressure reductions at the time of morning trough blood levels were greater with the divided regimen.

During chronic therapy, the maximum reduction in blood pressure with any dose is generally achieved after 1-2 weeks. The antihypertensive effects of Lotensin have continued during therapy for at least two years. Abrupt withdrawal of Lotensin has not been associated with a rapid increase in blood pressure.

In patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension, Lotensin 10-20 mg was similar in effectiveness to captopril, hydrochlorothiazide, nifedipine SR, and propranolol.

The antihypertensive effects of Lotensin were not appreciably different in patients receiving high- or low-sodium diets.

In hemodynamic studies in dogs, blood pressure reduction was accompanied by a reduction in peripheral arterial resistance, with an increase in cardiac output and renal blood flow and little or no change in heart rate. In normal human volunteers, single doses of benazepril caused an increase in renal blood flow but had no effect on glomerular filtration rate.

Use of Lotensin in combination with thiazide diuretics gives a blood-pressure-lowering effect greater than that seen with either agent alone. By blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, administration of Lotensin tends to reduce the potassium loss associated with the diuretic.

Pediatric

In a clinical study of 107 pediatric patients, 7 to 16 years of age, with either systolic or diastolic pressure above the 95th percentile, patients were given 0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg then titrated up to 0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg with a maximum dose of 40 mg once daily. After four weeks of treatment, the 85 patients whose blood pressure was reduced on therapy were then randomized to either placebo or benazepril and were followed up for an additional two weeks. At the end of two weeks, blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) in children withdrawn to placebo rose by 4 to 6 mmHg more than in children on benazepril. No dose-response was observed for the three doses.

Last reviewed on RxList: 1/27/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

PATIENT INFORMATION

Pregnancy

Female patients of childbearing age should be told about the consequences of exposure to Lotensin during pregnancy. Discuss treatment options with women planning to become pregnant. Patients should be asked to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible.

Angioedema

Angioedema, including laryngeal edema, can occur at any time with treatment with ACE inhibitors. Patients should be so advised and told to report immediately any signs or symptoms suggesting angioedema (swelling of face, eyes, lips, or tongue, or difficulty in breathing) and to take no more drug until they have consulted with the prescribing physician.

Symptomatic Hypotension

Patients should be cautioned that lightheadedness can occur, especially during the first days of therapy, and it should be reported to the prescribing physician. Patients should be told that if syncope occurs, Lotensin should be discontinued until the prescribing physician has been consulted.

All patients should be cautioned that inadequate fluid intake or excessive perspiration, diarrhea, or vomiting can lead to an excessive fall in blood pressure, with the same consequences of lightheadedness and possible syncope.

Hyperkalemia

Patients should be told not to use potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium without consulting the prescribing physician.

Neutropenia

Patients should be told to promptly report any indication of infection (e.g., sore throat, fever), which could be a sign of neutropenia.

Last reviewed on RxList: 1/27/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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PATIENT INFORMATION

Pregnancy

Female patients of childbearing age should be told about the consequences of exposure to Lotensin during pregnancy. Discuss treatment options with women planning to become pregnant. Patients should be asked to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible.

Angioedema

Angioedema, including laryngeal edema, can occur at any time with treatment with ACE inhibitors. Patients should be so advised and told to report immediately any signs or symptoms suggesting angioedema (swelling of face, eyes, lips, or tongue, or difficulty in breathing) and to take no more drug until they have consulted with the prescribing physician.

Symptomatic Hypotension

Patients should be cautioned that lightheadedness can occur, especially during the first days of therapy, and it should be reported to the prescribing physician. Patients should be told that if syncope occurs, Lotensin should be discontinued until the prescribing physician has been consulted.

All patients should be cautioned that inadequate fluid intake or excessive perspiration, diarrhea, or vomiting can lead to an excessive fall in blood pressure, with the same consequences of lightheadedness and possible syncope.

Hyperkalemia

Patients should be told not to use potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium without consulting the prescribing physician.

Neutropenia

Patients should be told to promptly report any indication of infection (e.g., sore throat, fever), which could be a sign of neutropenia.

Last reviewed on RxList: 1/27/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Disclaimer

Lotensin Consumer

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

BENAZEPRIL - ORAL

(ben-AZ-e-pril)

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Lotensin

WARNING: This drug can cause serious harm (possibly fatal) to an unborn baby if used during pregnancy. Therefore, it is important to prevent pregnancy while taking this medication. Consult your doctor for more details and to discuss the use of reliable forms of birth control while taking this medication. If you are planning pregnancy, become pregnant or think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor immediately.

USES: Benazepril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. Benazepril is an ACE inhibitor and works by relaxing blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily.

OTHER USES: This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional. Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.

This medication may also be used to treat heart failure or to help protect the kidneys from harm due to diabetes.

HOW TO USE: Take this medication by mouth with or without food as directed by your doctor, usually once or twice daily.

If you are using the suspension form of this medication, shake the bottle well before each dose. Carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose.

The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. For children, the dosage is also based on weight.

Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time(s) each day. It is important to continue taking this medication even if you feel well. Most people with high blood pressure do not feel sick.

It may take 1 to 2 weeks before you get the full benefit of this medication. Tell your doctor if your condition does not improve or if it worsens (such as your blood pressure readings remain high or increase).

Disclaimer

Lotensin Consumer (continued)

SIDE EFFECTS: Dizziness, lightheadedness, drowsiness, or headache may occur as your body adjusts to the medication. Dry cough may also occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: fainting, muscle weakness, signs of infection (such as fever, chills, persistent sore throat), change in the amount of urine.

This drug may rarely cause serious (possibly fatal) liver problems. Tell your doctor right away if you notice any of the following rare but serious side effects: yellowing eyes/skin, dark urine, severe stomach/abdominal pain, persistent nausea/vomiting.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Read the Lotensin (benazepril) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

PRECAUTIONS: Before taking benazepril, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other ACE inhibitors (such as lisinopril); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: history of an allergic reaction which included swelling of the face/lips/tongue/throat (angioedema), blood filtering procedures (such as LDL apheresis, dialysis), high level of potassium in the blood, collagen vascular disease (such as lupus, scleroderma).

This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Limit alcoholic beverages.

To reduce the risk of dizziness and lightheadedness, get up slowly when rising from a sitting or lying position.

Too much sweating, diarrhea, or vomiting may cause loss of too much body water (dehydration) and increase your risk of lightheadedness. Report prolonged diarrhea or vomiting to your doctor. Be sure to drink enough fluids to prevent dehydration unless your doctor directs you otherwise.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

This product may increase your potassium levels. Before using potassium supplements or salt substitutes that contain potassium, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

Older adults may be more sensitive to the effects of this product, especially dizziness.

This medication is not recommended for use during pregnancy. It may harm an unborn baby. Consult your doctor for more details. (See also Warning section.)

This medication passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Disclaimer

Lotensin Consumer (continued)

DRUG INTERACTIONS: See also Precautions section.

Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

Some products that may interact with this drug include: aliskiren, lithium, drugs that may increase your potassium level (including birth control products that contain drospirenone).

Check the labels on all your medicines (such as cough-and-cold products, diet aids, or NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, naproxen) because they may contain ingredients that could increase your blood pressure or worsen your heart failure. Ask your pharmacist for more details.

A very serious reaction may occur if you are getting injections for bee/wasp sting allergy (desensitization) and are also taking benazepril. Make sure all your doctors know which medicines you are using.

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call the US National Poison Hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: severe dizziness, fainting.

NOTES: Do not share this medication with others.

Lifestyle changes such as stress reduction programs, exercise and dietary changes may increase the effectiveness of this medicine. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about lifestyle changes that might benefit you.

Laboratory and/or medical tests (such as kidney function, potassium levels) should be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

Check your blood pressure regularly while taking this medication. Learn how to monitor your own blood pressure at home, and share the results with your doctor.

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

STORAGE: Store tablets at room temperature away from light and moisture. Store the suspension in the refrigerator. Discard any unused suspension after 30 days. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

Information last revised April 2012. Copyright(c) 2012 First Databank, Inc.

Lotensin Patient Information Including Side Effects

Brand Names: Lotensin

Generic Name: benazepril (Pronunciation: ben AY ze pril)

What is benazepril (Lotensin)?

Benazepril is in a group of drugs called ACE inhibitors. ACE stands for angiotensin converting enzyme.

Benazepril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension).

Benazepril may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Benazepril 10 mg-APO

round, yellow, imprinted with APO, BE 10

Benazepril 10 mg-EON

round, orange, imprinted with E 53

Benazepril 10 mg-ETH

round, red, imprinted with 342, ETH

Benazepril 10 mg-MYL

round, white, imprinted with M, 443

Benazepril 10 mg-RAN

round, yellow, imprinted with RX 737

Benazepril 10 mg-SAN

round, yellow, imprinted with GG 747, 10

Benazepril 10 mg-TEV

triangular, orange, imprinted with 93, 5125

Benazepril 20 mg-APO

round, peach, imprinted with APO, BE 20

Benazepril 20 mg-EON

round, pink, imprinted with E 82

Benazepril 20 mg-ETH

round, gray, imprinted with 343, ETH

Benazepril 20 mg-MYL

round, white, imprinted with M 444

Benazepril 20 mg-RAN

round, peach, imprinted with RX 738

Benazepril 20 mg-SAN

round, pink, imprinted with GG 748, 20

Benazepril 20 mg-TEV

triangular, pink, imprinted with 93, 5126

Benazepril 40 mg-APO

round, pink, imprinted with APO, BE 40

Benazepril 40 mg-EON

round, red, imprinted with E 48

Benazepril 40 mg-ETH

round, blue, imprinted with 344, ETH

Benazepril 40 mg-MYL

oval, white, imprinted with M447

Benazepril 40 mg-TEV

triangular, pink, imprinted with 93, 5127

Benazepril 5 mg-APO

round, white, imprinted with APO, BE 5

Benazepril 5 mg-EON

round, yellow, imprinted with E 5

Benazepril 5 mg-ETH

round, white, imprinted with 341, ETH

Benazepril 5 mg-MYL

round, white, imprinted with M, 441

Benazepril 5 mg-TEV

triangular, yellow, imprinted with 93, 5124

Lotensin 10 mg

round, yellow, imprinted with LOTENSIN, 10

Lotensin 10 mg-NOV

round, yellow, imprinted with 10, LOTENSIN

Lotensin 20 mg

round, pink, imprinted with LOTENSIN, 20

Lotensin 40 mg

round, peach, imprinted with LOTENSIN, 40

Lotensin 5 mg

round, yellow, imprinted with LOTENSIN, 5

What are the possible side effects of benazepril (Lotensin)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; severe stomach pain; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • feeling light-headed, fainting;
  • urinating more or less than usual, or not at all;
  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms;
  • pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding;
  • severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash;
  • tired feeling, muscle weakness, and pounding or uneven heartbeats;
  • chest pain;
  • swelling, rapid weight gain; or
  • jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes).

Less serious side effects may include:

  • cough;
  • dizziness, drowsiness, headache;
  • nausea, constipation; or
  • mild skin itching or rash.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Lotensin (benazepril) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

What is the most important information I should know about benazepril (Lotensin)?

Avoid drinking alcohol. It can further lower your blood pressure and may increase some of the side effects of benazepril.

Do not use salt substitutes or potassium supplements while taking benazepril, unless your doctor has told you to.

Vomiting, diarrhea, or heavy sweating can cause you to become dehydrated. This can lead to very low blood pressure, electrolyte disorders, or kidney failure while you are taking benazepril. Drink plenty of water each day while you are taking this medication.

Side Effects Centers

Lotensin Patient Information including How Should I Take

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking benazepril (Lotensin)?

Do not use this medication if you are allergic to benazepril or to any other ACE inhibitor, such as captopril (Capoten), fosinopril (Monopril), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), ramipril (Altace), or trandolapril (Mavik).

If you have certain conditions, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely use this medication. Before you take benazepril, tell your doctor if you have:

  • kidney disease (or if you are on dialysis);
  • liver disease;
  • heart disease or congestive heart failure;
  • diabetes; or
  • a connective tissue disease such as Marfan syndrome, Sjogren's syndrome, lupus, scleroderma, or rheumatoid arthritis.

FDA pregnancy category D. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy. Benazepril could cause birth defects in the baby if you take the medication during pregnancy. Use an effective form of birth control. Stop using this medication and tell your doctor right away if you become pregnant during treatment.

Benazepril can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

Do not give this medication to a child younger than 6 years old.

How should I take benazepril (Lotensin)?

Take this medication exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results from this medication.

Take each dose with a full glass of water.

Benazepril can be taken with or without food.

Vomiting, diarrhea, or heavy sweating can cause you to become dehydrated. This can lead to very low blood pressure, electrolyte disorders, or kidney failure while you are taking benazepril. Drink plenty of water each day while you are taking this medication.

To be sure this medication is helping your condition, your blood pressure will need to be checked on a regular basis. Your kidney or liver function may also need to be tested. Do not miss any scheduled visits to your doctor.

If you need to have any type of surgery, tell the surgeon ahead of time that you are taking benazepril. You may need to stop using the medicine for a short time.

If you are being treated for high blood pressure, keep using this medication even if you feel fine. High blood pressure often has no symptoms.

Store benazepril at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Side Effects Centers

Lotensin Patient Information including If I Miss a Dose

What happens if I miss a dose (Lotensin)?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and take the medicine at the next regularly scheduled time. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose (Lotensin)?

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine.

Symptoms of a benazepril overdose may include feeling extremely dizzy or light-headed, or fainting.

What should I avoid while taking benazepril (Lotensin)?

Avoid drinking alcohol. It can further lower your blood pressure and may increase some of the side effects of benazepril.

Do not use salt substitutes or potassium supplements while taking benazepril, unless your doctor has told you to.

What other drugs will affect benazepril (Lotensin)?

Before taking benazepril, tell your doctor if you are taking any of the following drugs:

  • gold injections to treat arthritis;
  • lithium (Lithobid, Eskalith);
  • insulin or diabetes medications you take by mouth;
  • a potassium supplement such as K-Dur, Klor-Con;
  • salt substitutes that contain potassium; or
  • a diuretic (water pill).

This list is not complete and there may be other drugs that can interact with benazepril. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you use. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist has information about benazepril written for health professionals that you may read.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 5.03. Revision date: 12/15/2010.

Your use of the content provided in this service indicates that you have read,understood and agree to the End-User License Agreement,which can be accessed by clicking on this link.

Healthwise

Side Effects Centers

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