Ceclor (Cefaclor)
برای این دارو، اطلاعات عمومی (فارسی) یافت نشد . برای افزودن اطلاعات فارسی به این دارو کلیک نمایید.
Ceclor (Cefaclor)

Ceclor®
(cefaclor) Pulvule, USP

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ceclor (cefaclor) and other antibacterial drugs, Ceclor (cefaclor) should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Ceclor (Cefaclor, USP) is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic for oral administration. It is chemically designated as 3-chloro-7-D-(2-phenylglycinamido)-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid monohydrate. The chemical formula for cefaclor is C15H14ClN304S•H2O and the molecular weight is 385.82.

Ceclor (Cefaclor) structural formula illustration

Each Pulvule® contains cefaclor monohydrate equivalent to 250 mg (0.68 mmol) or 500 mg (1.36 mmol) anhydrous cefaclor. The Pulvules also contain cornstarch, F D & C Blue No. 1, F D & C Red No. 40, gelatin, magnesium stearate, silicone, titanium dioxide, and other inactive ingredients. The 500-mg Pulvule also contains iron oxide.

After mixing, each 5 mL of Ceclor for Oral Suspension will contain cefaclor monohydrate equivalent to 125 mg (0.34 mmol), 187 mg (0.51 mmol), 250 mg (0.68 mmol), or 375 mg (1.0 mmol) anhydrous cefaclor. The suspensions also contain cellulose, cornstarch, F D & C Red No. 40, flavors, silicone, sodium lauryl sulfate, sucrose, and xanthan gum.

What are the precautions when taking cefaclor (Ceclor)?

Before taking cefaclor, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to penicillins or other cephalosporins; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: severe kidney disease, intestinal disease (colitis).

Kidney function declines as you grow older. This medication is removed by the kidneys. Therefore, elderly people may be more sensitive to this drug.

This medication should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

This medication passes into breast milk....

Read All Potential Precautions of Ceclor »

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

INDICATIONS

Ceclor (cefaclor) is indicated in the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms:

Otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, staphylococci, and Streptococcus pyogenes

Note: (β-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains of Haemophilus influenzae should be considered resistant to cefaclor despite apparent in vitro susceptibility of some BLNAR strains.

Lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pyogenes

Note: β-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains of Haemophilus influenzae should be considered resistant to cefaclor despite apparent in vitro susceptibility of some BLNAR strains.

Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis, caused by Streptococcus pyogenes

Note: Penicillin is the usual drug of choice in the treatment and prevention of streptococcal infections, including the prophylaxis of rheumatic fever. Ceclor (cefaclor) is generally effective in the eradication of streptococci from the nasopharynx; however, substantial data establishing the efficacy of Ceclor (cefaclor) in the subsequent prevention of rheumatic fever are not available at present.

Urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis and cystitis, caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella spp., and coagulase-negative staphylococci

Skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

Appropriate culture and susceptibility studies should be performed to determine susceptibility of the causative organism to cefaclor.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ceclor (cefaclor) and other antibacterial drugs, Ceclor (cefaclor) should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Ceclor (cefaclor) is administered orally.

Adults - The usual adult dosage is 250 mg every 8 hours. For more severe infections (such as pneumonia) or those caused by less susceptible organisms, doses may be doubled.

Pediatric patients - The usual recommended daily dosage for pediatric patients is 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours. In more serious infections, otitis media, and infections caused by less susceptible organisms, 40 mg/kg/day are recommended, with a maximum dosage of 1 g/day.

  Ceclor Suspension
20 mg/kg/day
Weight 125 mo/5 mL 250 mg/5 mL
9 kg 1/2 tsp t.i.d.  
18 kg 1 tsp t.i.d. 1/2 tsp t.i.d.
  40 mg/kg/day
9 kg 1 tsp t.i.d. 1/2 tsp t.i.d.
18 kg   1 tsp t.i.d.

B.I.D. Treatment Option - For the treatment of otitis media and pharyngitis, the total daily dosage may be divided and administered every 12 hours.

  Ceclor (cefaclor) Suspension
20 mg/kg/day
(Pharyngitis)
Weight 187 ms/5 mL 375 ms/5 mL
9 kg 1/2 tsp b.i.d.  
18 kg 1 tsp b.i.d. 1/2 tsp b.i.d.
  40 mg/kg/day
(Otitis Media)
9 kg 1 tsp b.i.d. 1/2 tsp b.i.d.
18 kg   1 tsp b.i.d.

Ceclor (cefaclor) may be administered in the presence of impaired renal function. Under such a condition, the dosage usually is unchanged (see PRECAUTIONS).

In the treatment of p-hemolytic streptococcal infections, a therapeutic dosage of Ceclor (cefaclor) should be administered for at least 10 days.

HOW SUPPLIED

Pulvules:

250 mg, purple and white (No. 3061) - (RxPak* of 15)

NDC 0002-3061-15; (100s)
NDC 0002-3061-02; (ID 100)
NDC 0002-3061-33

500 mg, purple and gray (No. 3062) - (RxPak of 15)

NDC 0002-3062-15

For Oral Suspension:

125 mg/5 mL, strawberry flavor (M-5057) - (150-mL size) NDC 0002-5057-68
187 mg/5 mL, strawberry flavor (M-5130) - (100-mL size) NDC 0002-5130-48
250 mg/5 mL, strawberry flavor (M-5058) - (75-mL size) NDC 0002-5058-18; (150-mL size) NDC 0002-5058-68
375 mg/5 mL, strawberry flavor (M-5132) - (100-mL size) NDC 0002-5132-48

*A11 RxPaks (prescription packages, Lilly) have safety closures.
ldenti-Dose® (unit dose medication, Lilly).
After mixing, store in a refrigerator. Shake well before using. Keep tightly closed. The mixture may be kept for 14 days without significant loss of potency. Discard unused portion after 14 days.

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]

Literature revised March 28, 2003. Manufactured by: Eli Lilly Italia, S.p.A. Sesto Florentino (Firenze), Italy for Eli Lilly and Company Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. FDA Rev date: 3/17/2004

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

SIDE EFFECTS

Adverse effects considered to be related to therapy with Ceclor (cefaclor) are listed below:

Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in about 1,5% of patients and include morbilliform eruptions (1 in 100). Pruritus, urticaria, and positive Coombs' tests each occur in less than 1 in 200 patients.

Cases of serum-sickness-like reactions have been reported with the use of Ceclor (cefaclor) . These are characterized by findings of erythema multiforme, rashes, and other skin manifestations accompanied by arthritis/arthralgia, with or without fever, and differ from classic serum sickness in that there is infrequently associated lymphadenopathy and proteinuria, no circulating immune complexes, and no evidence to date of sequelae of the reaction. Occasionally, solitary symptoms may occur, but do not represent a serum-sickness-like reaction. While further investigation is ongoing, serum-sickness-like reactions appear to be due to hypersensitivity and more often occur during or following a second (or subsequent) course of therapy with Ceclor (cefaclor) . Such reactions have been reported more frequently in pediatric patients than in adults with an overall occurrence ranging from 1 in 200 (0.5%) in one focused trial to 2 in 8346 (0.024%) in overall clinical trials (with an incidence in pediatric patients in clinical trials of 0.055%) to 1 in 38,000 (0.003%) in spontaneous event reports. Signs and symptoms usually occur a few days after initiation of therapy and subside within a few days after cessation of therapy; occasionally these reactions have resulted in hospitalization, usually of short duration ' (median hospitalization = 2 to 3 days, based on postmarketing surveillance studies). In those requiring hospitalization, the symptoms have ranged from mild to severe at the time of admission with more of the severe reactions occurring in pediatric patients. Antihistamines and glucocorticoids appear to enhance resolution of the signs and symptoms. No serious sequelae have been reported.

More severe hypersensitivity reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and anaphylaxis have been reported rarely. Anaphylactoid events may be manifested by solitary symptoms, including angioedema, asthenia, edema (including face and limbs), dyspnea, paresthesias, syncope, hypotension, or vasodilatation. Anaphylaxis may be more common in patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Rarely, hypersensitivity symptoms may persist for several months.

Gastrointestinal symptoms occur in about 2.5% of patients and include diarrhea (1 in 70). Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment {see WARNINGS). Nausea and vomiting have been reported rarely. As with some penicillins and some other cephalosporins, transient hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice have been reported rarely.

Other effects considered related to therapy included eosinophilia (1 in 50 patients), genital pruritus, moniliasis or vaginitis ( about 1 in 50 patients), and, rarely, thrombocytopenia or reversible interstitial nephritis.

Causal Relationship Uncertain -

CNS - Rarely, reversible hyperactivity, agitation, nervousness, insomnia, confusion, hypertonia, dizziness, hallucinations, and somnolence have been reported.

Transitory abnormalities in clinical laboratory test results have been reported. Although they were of uncertain etiology, they are listed below to serve as alerting information for the physician.

Hepatic - Slight elevations of AST, ALT, or alkaline phosphatase values (1 in 40).

Hematopoietic - As has also been reported with other p-lactam antibiotics, transient lymphocytosis, leukopenia, and, rarely, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and reversible neutropenia of possible clinical significance.

There have been rare reports of increased prothrombin time with or without clinical bleeding in patients receiving Ceclor (cefaclor) and Coumadin® concomitantly.

Renal - Slight elevations in BUN or serum creatinine (less than 1 in 500) or abnormal urinalysis (less than 1 in 200).

Cephalosporin-class Adverse Reactions

In addition to the adverse reactions listed above that have been observed in patients treated with cefaclor, the following adverse reactions and altered laboratory tests have been reported for cephalosporin-class antibiotics: fever, abdominal pain, superinfection, renal dysfunction, toxic nephropathy, hemorrhage, false positive test for urinary glucose, elevated bilirubin, elevated LDH, and pancytopenia.

Several cephalosporins have been implicated in triggering seizures, particularly in patients with renal impairment when the dosage was not reduced. If seizures associated with drug therapy occur, the drug should be discontinued. Anticonvulsant therapy can be given if clinically indicated (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and OVERDOSAGE sections).

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Drug / Laboratory Test Interactions

Patients receiving Ceclor (cefaclor) may show a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine with tests that use Benedict's and Fehling's solutions and also with Clinitesr tablets.

There have been reports of increased anticoagulant effect when Ceclor (cefaclor) and oral anticoagulants were administered concomitantly.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

WARNINGS

BEFORE THERAPY WITH CECLOR (cefaclor) IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEFACLOR, CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. IF THIS PRODUCT IS TO BE GIVEN TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS-HYPERSENSITIVITY AMONG β-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY.

IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO CECLOR (cefaclor) OCCURS, DISCONTINUE THE DRUG. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS, INTRAVENOUS ANTIHISTAMINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.

Antibiotics, including Ceclor (cefaclor) , should be administered cautiously to any patient who has demonstrated some form of allergy, particularly to drugs.

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including cefaclor, and has ranged in severity from mild to life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents.

Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of Clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is one primary cause of antibiotic-associated colitis.

After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation and treatment with an antibacterial drug effective against C. difficile.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Prescribing Ceclor (cefaclor) in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Prolonged use of Ceclor (cefaclor) may result in the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.

Positive direct Coombs' tests have been reported during treatment with the cephalosporin antibiotics. It should be recognized that a positive Coombs' test may be due to the drug, eg, in hematologic studies or in transfusion cross-matching procedures when antiglobulin tests are performed on the minor side or in Coombs' testing of newborns whose mothers have received cephalosporin antibiotics before parturition.

Ceclor (cefaclor) should be administered with caution in the presence of markedly impaired renal function. Since the half-life of cefaclor in anuria is 2.3 to 2.8 hours, dosage adjustments for patients with moderate or severe renal impairment are usually not required. Clinical experience with cefaclor under such conditions is limited; therefore, careful clinical observation and laboratory studies should be made.

As with other β-lactam antibiotics, the renal excretion of cefaclor is inhibited by probenecid.

Antibiotics, including cephalosporins, should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Studies have not been performed to determine potential for carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or impairment of fertility.

Pregnancy - Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category B

Reproduction studies have been performed in mice and rats at doses up to 12 times the human dose and in ferrets given 3 times the maximum human dose and have revealed no harm to the fetus due to Ceclor (cefaclor) . There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Labor and Delivery

The effect of Ceclor (cefaclor) on labor and delivery is unknown.

Nursing Mothers

Small amounts of Ceclor (cefaclor) have been detected in mother's milk following administration of single 500-mg doses. Average levels were 0.18, 0.20, 0.21, and 0.16 µg/mL at 2, 3,4, and 5 hours respectively. Trace amounts were detected at 1 hour. The effect on nursing infants is not known. Caution should be exercised when Ceclor (cefaclor) is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of this product for use in infants less than 1 month of age have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Of the 3703 patients in clinical studies of Ceclor (cefaclor) , 594 (16.0%) were 65 and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney {see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY), and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OVERDOSE

Signs and Symptoms - The toxic symptoms following an overdose of cefaclor may include nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, and diarrhea. The severity of the epigastric distress and the diarrhea are dose related. If other symptoms are present, it is probable that they are secondary to an underlying disease state, an allergic reaction, or the effects of other intoxication.

Treatment - To obtain up-to-date information about the treatment of overdose, a good resource is your certified Regional Poison Control Center. Telephone numbers of certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR). In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug overdoses, interaction among drugs, and unusual drug kinetics in your patient.

Unless 5 times the normal dose of cefaclor has been ingested, gastrointestinal decontamination will not be necessary.

Protect the patient's airway and support ventilation and perfusion. Meticulously monitor and maintain, within acceptable limits, the patient's vital signs, blood gases, serum electrolytes, etc. Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract may be decreased by giving activated charcoal, which, in many cases, is more effective than emesis or lavage; consider charcoal instead of or in addition to gastric emptying. Repeated doses of charcoal over time may hasten elimination of some drugs that have been absorbed. Safeguard the patient's airway when employing gastric emptying or charcoal.

Forced diuresis, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, or charcoal hemoperfusion have not been established as beneficial for an overdose of cefaclor.

CONTRAINDICATION

Ceclor (cefaclor) is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Cefaclor is well absorbed after oral administration to fasting subjects. Total absorption is the same whether the drug is given with or without food; however, when it is taken with food, the peak concentration achieved is 50% to 75% of that observed when the drug is administered to fasting subjects and generally appears from three fourths to 1 hour later. Following administration of 250-mg, 500-mg, and 1-g doses to fasting subjects, average peak serum levels of approximately 7, 13, and 23 µg/mL respectively were obtained within 30 to 60 minutes. Approximately 60% to 85% of the drug is excreted unchanged in the urine within 8 hours, the greater portion being excreted within the first 2 hours. During this 8-hour period, peak urine concentrations following the 250-mg, 500-mg, and 1-g doses were approximately 600, 900, and 1,900 µ/mL, respectively. The serum half-life in normal subjects is 0.6 to 0.9 hour. In patients with reduced renal function, the serum half-life of cefaclor is slightly prolonged. In those with complete absence of renal function, the plasma half-life of the intact molecule is 2.3 to 2.8 hours. Excretion pathways in patients with markedly impaired renal function have not been determined. Hemodialysis shortens the half-life by 25% to 30%.

Microbiology

In vitro tests demonstrate that the bactericidal action of the cephalosporins results from inhibition of cell-wall synthesis. Cefaclor has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS section.

Aerobes, Gram-positive

Staphylococci, including coagulase-positive, coagulase-negative, and penicillinase-producing strains
Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes
(group A (β-hemolytic streptococci)

Aerobes, Gram-negative

Escherichia coli
Haemophilus influenzae,
excluding {β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains
Klebsiella
spp.
Proteus mirabilis

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown.

Cefaclor exhibits in vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ≤ 8 µglmL against most ( ≥ 90%) strains of the following microorganisms; however, the safety and effectiveness of cefaclor in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms have not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

Aerobes, Gram-negative

Citrobacter diversus
Moraxella (Branhamella)

catarrhalis Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Anaerobes, Gram-positive

Bacteroides spp. (excluding Bacteroides fragilis)
Peptococcus

Peptostreptococcus

Propionibacterium acnes

Note: Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and most strains of enterococci (Enterococcus faecalis, group D streptococci), Enterobacter spp., indole-positive Proteus, Morganella morganii (formerly Proteus morganii), Providencia rettgeri (formerly Proteus rettgeri), and Serratia spp. are resistant to cefaclor. When tested by in vitro methods, staphylococci exhibit cross-resistance between cefaclor and methicillin-type antibiotics.

Susceptibility Testing

Dilution Techniques - Quantitative methods that are used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure that has been recommended for use with cefaclor powder uses a standardized dilution method1 (broth, agar, or microdilution). The MIC values obtained should be interpreted according to the following criteria:


MIC (µg/mL) Interpretation*
≤ 8 Susceptible (S)
16 Intermediate (I)
≥ 32 Resistant (R)
*When testing H. influenzae spp. these interpretive standards are applicable only to broth microdilution method using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM)1

Note:β-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant strains of H. influenzae should be considered resistant to cefaclor despite apparent in vitro susceptibility to this agent.

A report of "Susceptible" indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited by usually achievable concentrations of the antimicrobial compound in blood. A report of "Intermediate" indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone that prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of "Resistant" indicates that usually achievable concentrations of the antimicrobial compound in the blood are unlikely to be inhibitory and that other therapy should be selected.

Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms. Standard cefaclor powder should provide the following MIC values:


Microorganism   MIC (µg/mL)
E. coli ATCC 25922 1-4
E. faecalis ATCC 29212 > 32
S. aureus ATCC 29213 1-4
When testing H. influenzae*
Microorganism   MIC (µg/mL)
H. influenzae ATCC 49766 1-4
*Broth microdilution test performed using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM)1

Diffusion Techniques - Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure2 that has been recommended for use with disks to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to cefaclor uses the 30-µg cefaclor disk. Interpretation involves correlation of the diameter obtained in the disk test with the MIC for cefaclor. Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 30-µg cefaclor disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria:

When Testing Organisms Other Than Haemophilus spp. and Streptococci


Zone Diameter (mm) Interpretation
≥ 18 Susceptible (S)
15-17 Intermediate (I)
≤ 14 Resistant (R)

When testing H. influenzae*


Zone Diameter (mm) Interpretation
≥ 20 Susceptible (S)
17-19 Intermediate (I)
≤ 16 Resistant (R)
*Disk susceptibility test performed using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM)2

Note: β-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant strains of H. influenzae should be considered resistant to cefaclor despite apparent in vitro susceptibility to this agent.

Interpretation should be as stated above for results using dilution techniques.

As with standard dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control microorganisms. The 30-µg cefaclor disk should provide the following zone diameters in these laboratory test quality control strains:


Microorganism Zone Diameter (mm)
E. coli ATCC 25922 23-27
S. aureus ATCC 25923 27-31

When testing H. influenzae*


Microorganism   Zone Diameter (mm)
H. influenzae ATCC 49766 25-31
*Disk susceptibility test performed using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM)2

REFERENCES

1. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically - Fourth Edition. Approved Standard NCCLS Document M7-A4, Vol. 17, No. 2, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January, 1997.

2. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests - Sixth Edition. Approved Standard NCCLS Document M2-A6, Vol. 17, No. 1, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January, 1997.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

PATIENT INFORMATION

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Ceclor (cefaclor) should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Ceclor (cefaclor) is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Ceclor (cefaclor) or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

>

PATIENT INFORMATION

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Ceclor (cefaclor) should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Ceclor (cefaclor) is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Ceclor (cefaclor) or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Disclaimer

Ceclor Consumer

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

CEFACLOR - ORAL

(SEF-a-klor)

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Ceclor

USES: This medication is a cephalosporin-type antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections (e.g., middle ear, skin, urine and respiratory tract infections). It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.

This antibiotic only treats bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (e.g., common cold, flu). Unnecessary use or overuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.

HOW TO USE: Take this medication by mouth usually every 8 or 12 hours, or as directed by your doctor. You may take this medicine with food if stomach upset occurs.

Antibiotics work best when the amount of medicine in your body is kept at a constant level. Therefore, take this drug at evenly spaced intervals.

Continue to take this medication until the full-prescribed amount is finished even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping this medication too early may allow bacteria to continue to grow, which may result in a relapse of the infection.

Inform your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.

Disclaimer

Ceclor Consumer (continued)

SIDE EFFECTS: Stomach upset, headache, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these highly unlikely but very serious side effects occur: stomach/abdominal pain, persistent nausea/vomiting, yellowing eyes or skin, dark urine, new signs of infection (e.g., persistent sore throat or fever), easy bruising/bleeding, change in the amount of urine, mental/mood changes (such confusion).

This medication may rarely cause a severe intestinal condition (Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea) due to a type of resistant bacteria. This condition may occur during treatment or weeks to months after treatment has stopped. Do not use anti-diarrhea products or narcotic pain medications if you have any of the following symptoms because these products may make them worse. Tell your doctor immediately if you develop: persistent diarrhea, abdominal or stomach pain/cramping, blood/mucus in your stool.

Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in oral thrush or a new vaginal yeast infection (oral or vaginal fungal infection). Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth, a change in vaginal discharge or other new symptoms.

A serious allergic reaction to this drug is unlikely, but seek immediate medical attention if it occurs. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction include: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), unusual joint pain, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Read the Ceclor (cefaclor) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

PRECAUTIONS: Before taking cefaclor, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to penicillins or other cephalosporins; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: severe kidney disease, intestinal disease (colitis).

Kidney function declines as you grow older. This medication is removed by the kidneys. Therefore, elderly people may be more sensitive to this drug.

This medication should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

This medication passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Disclaimer

Ceclor Consumer (continued)

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with them first.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and nonprescription/herbal products you may use, especially of: live bacterial vaccines, probenecid, warfarin.

Although most antibiotics probably do not affect hormonal birth control such as pills, patch, or ring, some antibiotics may decrease their effectiveness. This could cause pregnancy. Examples include rifamycins such as rifampin or rifabutin. Be sure to ask your doctor or pharmacist if you should use additional reliable birth control methods while using this antibiotic.

This medication may cause false positive results with certain diabetic urine testing products (cupric sulfate-type). This drug may also affect the results of certain lab tests. Make sure laboratory personnel and your doctors know you use this drug.

This document does not contain all possible interactions. Therefore, before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the products you use. Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist.

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call the US national poison hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canadian residents should call their local poison control center directly. Symptoms of overdose may include severe vomiting, seizures.

NOTES: Do not share this medication with others.

This medication has been prescribed for your current condition only. Do not use it later for another infection unless told to do so by your doctor. A different medication may be necessary in those cases.

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

STORAGE: Store at room temperature between 59-86 degrees F (15-30 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

Information last revised January 2011. Copyright(c) 2011 First Databank, Inc.

Ceclor®
(cefaclor) Pulvule, USP

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ceclor (cefaclor) and other antibacterial drugs, Ceclor (cefaclor) should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Ceclor (Cefaclor, USP) is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic for oral administration. It is chemically designated as 3-chloro-7-D-(2-phenylglycinamido)-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid monohydrate. The chemical formula for cefaclor is C15H14ClN304S•H2O and the molecular weight is 385.82.

Ceclor (Cefaclor) structural formula illustration

Each Pulvule® contains cefaclor monohydrate equivalent to 250 mg (0.68 mmol) or 500 mg (1.36 mmol) anhydrous cefaclor. The Pulvules also contain cornstarch, F D & C Blue No. 1, F D & C Red No. 40, gelatin, magnesium stearate, silicone, titanium dioxide, and other inactive ingredients. The 500-mg Pulvule also contains iron oxide.

After mixing, each 5 mL of Ceclor for Oral Suspension will contain cefaclor monohydrate equivalent to 125 mg (0.34 mmol), 187 mg (0.51 mmol), 250 mg (0.68 mmol), or 375 mg (1.0 mmol) anhydrous cefaclor. The suspensions also contain cellulose, cornstarch, F D & C Red No. 40, flavors, silicone, sodium lauryl sulfate, sucrose, and xanthan gum.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Ceclor®
(cefaclor) Pulvule, USP

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ceclor (cefaclor) and other antibacterial drugs, Ceclor (cefaclor) should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Ceclor (Cefaclor, USP) is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic for oral administration. It is chemically designated as 3-chloro-7-D-(2-phenylglycinamido)-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid monohydrate. The chemical formula for cefaclor is C15H14ClN304S•H2O and the molecular weight is 385.82.

Ceclor (Cefaclor) structural formula illustration

Each Pulvule® contains cefaclor monohydrate equivalent to 250 mg (0.68 mmol) or 500 mg (1.36 mmol) anhydrous cefaclor. The Pulvules also contain cornstarch, F D & C Blue No. 1, F D & C Red No. 40, gelatin, magnesium stearate, silicone, titanium dioxide, and other inactive ingredients. The 500-mg Pulvule also contains iron oxide.

After mixing, each 5 mL of Ceclor for Oral Suspension will contain cefaclor monohydrate equivalent to 125 mg (0.34 mmol), 187 mg (0.51 mmol), 250 mg (0.68 mmol), or 375 mg (1.0 mmol) anhydrous cefaclor. The suspensions also contain cellulose, cornstarch, F D & C Red No. 40, flavors, silicone, sodium lauryl sulfate, sucrose, and xanthan gum.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Ceclor®
(cefaclor) Pulvule, USP

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ceclor (cefaclor) and other antibacterial drugs, Ceclor (cefaclor) should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Ceclor (Cefaclor, USP) is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic for oral administration. It is chemically designated as 3-chloro-7-D-(2-phenylglycinamido)-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid monohydrate. The chemical formula for cefaclor is C15H14ClN304S•H2O and the molecular weight is 385.82.

Ceclor (Cefaclor) structural formula illustration

Each Pulvule® contains cefaclor monohydrate equivalent to 250 mg (0.68 mmol) or 500 mg (1.36 mmol) anhydrous cefaclor. The Pulvules also contain cornstarch, F D & C Blue No. 1, F D & C Red No. 40, gelatin, magnesium stearate, silicone, titanium dioxide, and other inactive ingredients. The 500-mg Pulvule also contains iron oxide.

After mixing, each 5 mL of Ceclor for Oral Suspension will contain cefaclor monohydrate equivalent to 125 mg (0.34 mmol), 187 mg (0.51 mmol), 250 mg (0.68 mmol), or 375 mg (1.0 mmol) anhydrous cefaclor. The suspensions also contain cellulose, cornstarch, F D & C Red No. 40, flavors, silicone, sodium lauryl sulfate, sucrose, and xanthan gum.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

توزیع کنندگان این دارو
شرکت های تولید کننده یا وارد کننده دارو

دارونـــما
نوآوری برای سلامت

طراحی و اجرا M.Ramezani
ارتباط با ما Info@darunama.com