Cefizox (Ceftizoxime)
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Cefizox (Ceftizoxime)

Discontinued Warning IconPlease Note: This Brand Name drug is no longer available in the US.
(Generic versions may still be available.)

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Cefizox® (ceftizoxime for injection, USP)
FOR INTRAMUSCULAR OR INTRA VENOUS USE

Cefizox® (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) is a sterile, semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, betalactamase resistant cephalosporin antibiotic for parenteral (IV, IM) administration. It is the sodium salt of [6R-[6a,7B(Z)]]-7-[(2,3-dihydro-2-imino-4-thiazolyl) (methoxyimino)acetyl]amino]- 8-oxo-5-thia-i-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid. Its sodium content is approximately 60 mg (2.6 mEq) per gram of ceftizoxime activity.

It has the following molecular formula: C13H12N5NaO5S2 and its molecular weight is 405.38.

Ceftizoxime for injection, USP is a white to pale yellow crystalline powder. Cefizox (ceftizoxime) is supplied in vials equivalent to 500 mg, 1 gram or 2 grams of ceftizoxime, and in Piggyback Vials for IV admixture equivalent to 1 gram or 2 grams of ceftizoxime.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Discontinued Warning IconPlease Note: This Brand Name drug is no longer available in the US.
(Generic versions may still be available.)

INDICATIONS

Cefizox (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) is indicated in the treatment of infections due to susceptible strains of the microorganisms listed below.

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections caused by Klebsiella spp.; Proteus mirabills; Escherichia coli; Haemophilus influenzae including ampicillin-resistant strains; Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase- and nonpenicillinase-producing); Serratia spp.; Enterobacter spp.; Bacteroides spp.; and Streptococcus spp. including S. pneumoniae, but excluding enterococci.

Urinary Tract Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase- and nonpenicillinase- producing); Escherichia coli; Pseudomonas spp. including P. aeruginosa; Proteus mirabilis; P. vulgaris; Providencia rettgeri (formerly Proteus rettgeri) and Morganella morganii (formerly Proteus morganil); Klebsiella spp.; Serratia spp. including S. marcescens; and Enterobacter spp.

Gonorrhea including uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli or Streptococcus agalactiae. NOTE: Ceftizoxime, like other cephalosporins, has no activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Therefore, when cephalosporins are used in the treatment of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and C. trachomatis is one of the suspected pathogens, appropriate anti-chlamydial coverage should be added.

Intra-Abdominal Infections caused by Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Streptococcus spp. (excluding enterococci); Enterobacter spp.; Klebsiella spp.; Bacteroides spp. including B. fragilis; and anaerobic cocci, including Peptococcus spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp.

Septicemia caused by Streptococcus spp. including S. pneumoniae (but excluding enterococci); Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase-and nonpenicillinase-producing); Escherichia coli; Bacteroides spp. including B. fragilis; Klebsiella spp.; and Serratia spp.

Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase- and nonpenicillinase-producing); Staphylococcus epidermidis; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; Streptococcus spp. including Streptococcus pyogenes (but excluding enterococci); Proteus mirabills; Serratia spp.; Enterobacterspp.; Bacteroides spp. including B. fragilis; and anaerobic cocci, including Peptococcus spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp.

Bone and Joint Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase- and nonpenicillinase-producing); Streptococcus spp. (excluding enterococci); Proteus mirabills; Bacteroides spp.; and anaerobic cocci, including Peptococcus spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp.

Meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae. Cefizox (ceftizoxime) has also been used successfully in the treatment of a limited number of pediatric and adult cases of meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Cefizox (ceftizoxime) has been effective in the treatment of seriously ill, compromised patients, including those who were debilitated, immunosuppressed, or neutropenic.

Infections caused by aerobic gram-negative and by mixtures of organisms resistant to other cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, or penicillins have responded to treatment with Cefizox (ceftizoxime) .

Because of the serious nature of some urinary tract infections due to P. aeruginosa and because many strains of Pseudomonas species are only moderately susceptible to Cefizox (ceftizoxime) , higher dosage is recommended. Other therapy should be instituted if the response is not prompt.

Susceptibility studies on specimens obtained prior to therapy should be used to determine the response of causative organisms to Cefizox (ceftizoxime) . Therapy with Cefizox (ceftizoxime) may be initiated pending results of the studies; however, treatment should be adjusted according to study findings. In serious infections, Cefizox (ceftizoxime) has been used concomitantly with aminoglycosides (see PRECAUTIONS). Before using Cefizox (ceftizoxime) concomitantly with other antibiotics, the prescribing information for those agents should be reviewed for contraindications, warnings, precautions, and adverse reactions. Renal function should be carefully monitored.  

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The usual adult dosage is 1 or 2 grams of Cefizox (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) every 8 to 12 hours. Proper dosage and route of administration should be determined by the condition of the patient, severity of the infection, and susceptibility of the causative organisms.
 

General Guidelines for Dosage of Cefizox (ceftizoxime)

Uncomplicated
Urinary Tract 

1

500 mg qi 2h IM or IV

Other Sites 

2-3

1 gram q8-1 2h IM or IV 

Severe or Refractory 

3-6

1 gram q8h IM or IV 
2 grams q8-12h IMa or IV 

PIDb

6

2 grams q8h IV 

Life-Threateningc 

9-12 

3-4 grams q8h IV 

a) When administering 2 gram IM doses, the dose should be divided and given in different large muscle masses. 

b) If C. trachomatis is a suspected pathogen, appropriate antichlamydial coverage should be added, because ceftizoxime has no activity against this organism. 

c) In life-threatening infections, dosages up to 2 grams every 4 hours have been given.


Because of the serious nature of urinary tract infections due to P. aeruginosa and because many strains of Pseudomonas species are only moderately susceptible to Cefizox (ceftizoxime) , higher dosage is recommended. Other therapy should be instituted if the response is not prompt.

A single, 1 gram IM dose is the usual dose for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea.

The IV route may be preferable for patients with bacterial septicemia, localized parenchymal abscesses (such as intra-abdominal abscess), peritonitis, or other severe or life-threatening infections.

In those with normal renal function, the IV dosage for such infections is 2 to 12 grams of Cefizox (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) daily. In conditions such as bacterial septicemia, 6 to 12 grams/day may be given initially by the IV route for several days, and the dosage may then be gradually reduced according to clinical response and laboratory findings.
 

Pediatric Dosage Schedule

 

Unit Dose 

Frequency

Pediatric patients 6 months or older

50 mg/kg

q6-8h 


Dosage maybe increased to atotal daily dose of 200 mg/kg (not to exceed the maximum adult dose for serious infection).

Impaired Renal Function

Modification of Cefizox (ceftizoxime) dosage is necessary in patients with impaired renal function. Following an initial loading dose of 500 mg-1 gram IM or IV, the maintenance dosing schedule shown below should be followed. Further dosing should be determined by therapeutic monitoring, severity of the infection, and susceptibility of the causative organisms.

When only the serum creatinine level is available, creatinine clearance may be calculated from the following formula. The serum creatinine level should represent current renal function at the steady state.

Males:
 

Clcr † Weight (kg) x (140 - age) cr † 72 x serum creatinine
________________________________________
(mg/100 mL)

Females: Females are 0.85 of the calculated clearance values for males.

In patients undergoing hemodialysis, no additional supplemental dosing is required following hemodialysis; however, dosing should be timed so that the patient receives the dose (according to the table below) at the end of the dialysis.
 

Dosage in Adults with Reduced Renal Function

Creatinine Clearance mL/min

Renal Function

Less Severe Infections

Life-Threatening Infections

79-50

Mild impairment

500 mg q8h 

0.75-1.5 grams 
q8h

49-5

Moderate to severe impairment

250-500 mg 
ql2h 

0.5-1 gram 
ql2h

4-0

Dialysis patients

500 mg q48h or 
250 mgq24h

0.5-1 gram q48h or 
0.5 gram q24h


Preparation of Parenteral Solution

Reconstitution:

IM Administration: Reconstitute with Sterile Water for Injection. SHAKE WELL.
 

Vial Size 

Diluent to
Be Added 

Approx.
Avail. Vol. 

Approx. Avg. 
Concentration 

Room Temp.
Stability 

500 mg 

1.5 mL 

1.8 mL 

280 mg/mL 

16 hours 

1 gram 

3.0 mL 

3.7mL

270 mg/mL 

16 hours 

2 grams*

6.0 mL 

7.4mL

270 mg/mL 

16 hours 

*When administering 2 gram IM doses, the dose should be divided and given in different large muscle masses.

IV Administration: Reconstitute with Sterile Water for Injection. SHAKE WELL.
 

Vial Size 

Diluent to
Be Added 

Approx.
Avail. Vol. 

Approx. Avg. 
Concentration 

Room Temp.
Stability 

500 mg 

5 mL 

5.3 mL 

95 mg/mL 

24 hours 

1 gram 

10 mL 

10.7mL

95 mg/mL 

24 hours 

2 grams*

20 mL 

21.4mL

95 mg/mL 

24 hours 


These solutions of Cefizox (ceftizoxime) are stable 24 hours at room temperature or 96 hours if refrigerated (5°C).

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter prior to administration. If particulate matter is evident in reconstituted fluids, then the drug solution should be discarded. Reconstituted solutions may range from yellow to amber without changes in potency.

Piggyback Vials: Reconstitute with 50 to 100 mL of Sodium Chloride Injection or any other IV solution listed below. SHAKE WELL.

Administer with primary IV fluids, as a single dose. These Piggyback vial solutions of Cefizox (ceftizoxime) are stable 24 hours at room ternperature or 96 hours if refrigerated (5°C).

A solution of 1 gram Cefizox (ceftizoxime) in 13 mL Sterile Water for Injection is isotonic.

IM Injection:

Inject well within the body of a relatively large muscle. Aspiration is necessary to avoid inadvertent injection into a blood vessel. When administering 2 gram IM doses, the dose should be divided and given in different large muscle masses.

IV Administration:

Direct (bolus) injection, slowly over 3 to 5 minutes, directly or through tubing for patients receiving parenteral fluids (see list below). Intermittent or continuous infusion, dilute reconstituted Cefizox (ceftizoxime) in 50 to 100 mL of one of the following solutions:

  • Sodium Chloride Injection
  • 5% or 10% Dextrose Injection
  • 5% Dextrose and 0.9%, 0.45%, or 0.2% Sodium Chloride Injection
  • Ringer†s Injection
  • Lactated Ringer†s Injection
  • Invert Sugar 10% in Sterile Water for Injection
  • 5% Sodium Bicarbonate in Sterile Water for Injection
  • 5% Dextrose in Lactated Ringer†s Injection (only when reconstituted with 4% Sodium Bicarbonate Injection)

In these fluids, Cefizox (ceftizoxime) is stable 24 hours at room temperature or 96 hours if refrigerated (5°C).

HOW SUPPLIED

Cefizox® (ceftizoxime for injection, USP)

NDC 0469-7250-01 Product No. 725001 Equivalent to 500 mg ceftizoxime in 10 mL, single-dose, flip-top vials, individually packaged

NDC 0469-7251-01 Product No. 725101 Equivalent to 1 gram ceftizoxime in 20 mL, single-dose, flip-top vials, individually packaged

NDC 0469-7252-01 Product No. 725201 Equivalent to 1 gram ceftizoxime in 100 mL, single-dose, Piggyback, flip-top vials, packaged in tens

NDC 0469-7253-02 Product No. 725302 Equivalent to 2 grams ceftizoxime in 20 mL, single-dose, flip-top vials, individually packaged

NDC 0469-7254-02 Product No. 725402 Equivalent to 2 grams ceftizoxime in 100 mL, single-dose, Piggyback, flip-top vials, packaged in tens

Unreconstituted Cefizox (ceftizoxime) should be protected from excessive light, and stored at controlled room temperature (59°-86°F)in the original package until used.

Rx only

REFERENCES

1. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Approved Standard. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Test, 4th Edition, Vol 10 (7): M2-A4. Villanova, PA, April 1990.

2. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Approved Standard. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically, 2nd Edition, Vol 10 (8): M7-A2. Villanova, PA, April 1990.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Discontinued Warning IconPlease Note: This Brand Name drug is no longer available in the US.
(Generic versions may still be available.)

SIDE EFFECTS

Cefizox® (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) is generally well tolerated.

The most frequent adverse reactions (greater than 1 % but less than 5%) are:
Hypersensitivity: Rash, pruritus, fever.
Hepatic: Transient elevation in AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase.
Hematologic: Transienteosinophilia, thrombocytosis. Some individuals have developed a positive Coombs test.
Local†Injection site: Burning, cellulitis, phlebitis with IV administration, pain, induration, tenderness, paresthesia.

The less frequent adverse reactions (less than 1%) are:
Hypersensitivity:
Numbness and anaphylaxis have been reported rarely.
Hepatic: Elevation of bilirubin has been reported rarely.
Renal: Transient elevations of BUN and creatinine have been occasionally observed with Cefizox (ceftizoxime) .
Hematologic: Anemia, including hemolytic anemia with occasional fatal outcome, leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia have been reported rarely.
Urogenital: Vaginitis has occurred rarely.
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea; nausea and vomiting have been reported occasionally.
Symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis can appear during or after antibiotic treatment (see WARNINGS).

In addition to the adverse reactions listed above which have been observed in patients treated with ceftizoxime, the following adverse reactions and altered laboratory tests have been reported for cephalosporin-class antibiotics:

Anticonvulsant therapy can be given if clinically indicated.
 

Read the Cefizox (ceftizoxime) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Although the occurrence has not been reported with Cefizox (ceftizoxime) , nephrotoxicity has been reported following concomitant administration of other cephalosporins and aminoglycosides.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Discontinued Warning IconPlease Note: This Brand Name drug is no longer available in the US.
(Generic versions may still be available.)

WARNINGS

BEFORE THERAPYWITH CEFIZOX (ceftizoxime) IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEFJZOX, OTHER CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. IF THIS PRODUCT IS TO BE GIVEN TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS HYPERSENSITIVITY AMONG BETA- LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO CEFIZOX (ceftizoxime) OCCURS, DISCONTINUE THE DRUG. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, IV FLUIDS, IV ANTIHISTA MINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including ceftizoxime, and may range in severity from mild to life threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to theadministration of antibacterial agents.

Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that atoxin produced by Clostridium difficile is a primary cause of † antibiotic-associated † colitis.

After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, appropriate therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against Clostridium difficile colitis.

PRECAUTIONS

General

As with all broad-spectrum antibiotics, Cefizox (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.

Although Cefizox (ceftizoxime) has not been shown to produce an alteration in renal function, renal status should be evaluated, especially in seriously ill patients receiving
maximum dose therapy. As with any antibiotic, prolonged use may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Careful observation is essential; appropriate
measures should be taken if superinfection occurs.

Drug Interactions

Althoughthe occurrence has not been reported with Cefizox (ceftizoxime) , nephrotoxicity has been reported following concomitant administration of other cephalosporins and
aminoglycosides.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term studies in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of ceftizoxime have not been conducted.
In an in vitro bacterial cell assay (i.e., Ames test), there was no evidence of mutagenicity at ceftizoxime concentrations of 0.001-0.5 mcg/plate. Ceftizoxime did not produce increases in micronuclei in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test when given to animals at doses up to 7500 mg/kg, approximately six times greater than the maximum human daily dose on a mg/M 2 basis.
Ceftizoxime had no effect on fertility when administered subcutaneously to rats at daily doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, approximately two times the maximum human daily dose on a mg/M2 basis.
Ceftizoxime produced no histological changes in the sexual organs of male and female dogs when given intravenously for thirteen weeks at a dose of 1000 mg/kg/day, approximately five times greater than the maximum human daily dose on a mg/M2 basis.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies performed in rats and rabbits have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Cefizox (ceftizoxime) . There are, however, no adequate and wellcontrolled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human effects, this drug should be used
during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Labor and Delivery

Safety of Cefizox (ceftizoxime) use during labor and delivery has not been established.

Nursing Mothers

Cefizox (ceftizoxime) is excreted in human milk in low concentrations. Caution should be exercised when Cefizox (ceftizoxime) is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients from birth to six months of age have not been established. In pediatric patients six months of age and older, treatment with Cefizox (ceftizoxime) has been associated with transient elevated levels of eosinophils, AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), and CPK (creatine phosphokinase). The CPKelevation may be related to IM administration.

The potential for the toxic effect in pediatric patients from chemicalsthat may leachfrom the single-dose IV preparation in plastic has not been determined.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Discontinued Warning IconPlease Note: This Brand Name drug is no longer available in the US.
(Generic versions may still be available.)

OVERDOSE

No information provided.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Cefizox (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) is contraindicated in patients who have known allergy to the drug.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Discontinued Warning IconPlease Note: This Brand Name drug is no longer available in the US.
(Generic versions may still be available.)

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

The table below demonstrates the serum levels and duration of Cefizox (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) following IM administration of 500 mg and 1 gram doses, respectively, to normal volunteers.
 

Serum Concentrations After Intramuscular Administration Serum Concentration (mcg/mL)

Dose

1/ 2hr

1 hr

2hr

4hr

6hr

8hr

500mg

13.3

13.7

9.2

4.8

1.9

0.7

1 gm

36.0

39.0

31.0

15.0

6.0

3.0


Following IV administration of 1,2, and 3 gram doses of Cefizox (ceftizoxime) to normal volunteers, the following serum levels were obtained.
 

Serum Concentrations After Intra Serum Concentration venous Adm (mcg/mL) inistration

Dose

5 min

10 min

30 min

1 hr

2 hr

4 hr

8 hr 

1 gram

ND

ND 

60.5

38.9 

21.5

8.4

1.4 

2grams

131.8

110.9

77.5

53.6 

33.1

12.1

2.0

3grams

221.1

174.0

112.7

83.9

47.4 

26.2 

4.8

ND=Not Done

A serum half-life of approximately 1.7 hours was observed after IV or IM administration.

Cefizox (ceftizoxime) is 30% protein bound.

Cefizox (ceftizoxime) is not metabolized, and is excreted virtually unchanged by the kidneys in 24 hours. This provides a high urinary concentration.

Concentrations greater than 6000 mcg/mL have been achieved in the urine by 2 hours after a 1 gram dose of Cefizox (ceftizoxime) intravenously. Probenecid slows tubular secretion and produces even higher serum levels, increasing the duration of measurable serum concentrations. Cefizox (ceftizoxime) achieves therapeutic levels in various bodyfluids, e.g., cerebrospinal fluid (in patients with inflamed meninges), bile, surgical wound fluid, pleural fluid, aqueous humor, ascitic fluid, peritoneal fluid, prostatic fluid and saliva, and in the following bodytissues: heart, gallbladder, bone, biliary, peritoneal, prostatic, and uterine.

In clinical experience to date, no disulfiram-like reactions have been reported with Cefizox (ceftizoxime) .

Microbiology

The bactericidal action of Cefizox (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) results from inhibition of cell-wall synthesis. Cefizox (ceftizoxime) is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases (penicillinase and cephalosporinase), including Richmond types I, II, III, TEM, and IV, produced by both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Cefizox (ceftizoxime) is active against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, and is usually active against the following organisms in vitro and in clinical situations (see NDICATIONS AND USAGE).

Gram-Positive Aerobes

NOTE: Ceftizoxime is usually inactive against most strains of Enterococcus faecalis (formerly S. faecalis).

Gram-Negative Aerobes

Anaerobes

    Bacteroides spp.
    Peptococcus spp.
    Peptostreptococcus spp.

Ceftizoxime is usually active against the following organisms in vitro, but the clinical significance of these data is unknown.

Gram-Positive Aerobes

    Cotynebacterium diphtheriae

Gram-Negative Aerobes

Anaerobes

    Actinomyces spp.
    Bifidobacterium spp.
    Clostridium spp.
    NOTE: Most strains of Clostridium difficile are resistant.
    Eubacterium spp.
    Fusobacterium spp.
    Propionibacterium spp.
    Veillonella spp.

Susceptibility Testing

Diffusion Techniques: Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters give the most precise estimate of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial agents. One such standard procedure1 has been recommended for use with disks to test susceptibility of organisms to ceftizoxime. Interpretation involves the correlation of the diameters obtained in the disk test with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ceftizoxime.

Organisms should be tested with the ceftizoxime disk, since ceftizoxime has been shown by in vitro tests to be active against certain strains found resistant when other beta-lactam disks are used.

Reports from the laboratory giving results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 30 mcg ceftizoxime disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria (with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa).
 

Zone Diameter (mm)

Interpretation

20

(S) Susceptible 

15-19

(MS) Moderately Susceptible

14 

(R) Resistant 


A report of †Susceptible† indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited by generally achievable blood levels. A report of †Moderately Susceptible† suggests that the organism would be susceptible if high dosage is used or if the infection is confined to tissue and fluids (e.g., urine) in which high antibiotic levels are attained. A report of †Resistant† indicates that achievable concentrations of the antibiotic are unlikely to be inhibitory and other therapy should be selected.

Standardized procedures require the use of laboratory control organisms. The 30 mcg ceftizoxime disk should give the following zone diameters.
 

Organism

ATCC Zone

Diameter (mm)

Escherichia coli 

25922

30-36

Pseudomonas aeruginosa 

27853

12-17 

Staphylococcus aureus

25923

27-35


Susceptibility Testing for Pseudomonas in Urinary Tract Infections: Most strains of Pseudomonasaeruginosa are moderately susceptible to ceftizoxime. Ceftizoxime achieves high levels in the urine (greater than 6000 mcg/mL at 2 hours with 1 gram IV) and therefore, the following zone sizes should be used when testing ceftizoxime for treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Susceptible organisms produce zones of 20 mm or greater, indicating that the test organism is likely to respond to therapy.

Organisms that producezones of 11 to 19 mm are expected to be susceptible when the infection is confined to the urinary tract (in which high antibiotic levels are attained).

Resistant organisms produce zones of 10 mm or less, indicating that other therapy should be selected.

Dilution Techniques: When using the NCCLS agar dilution or broth dilution (including microdilution) method 2 or equivalent, the following MIC data should be used for interpretation.
 

MIC (mcg/mL) 

Interpretation

(S) Susceptible 

16-32 

(MS) Moderately Susceptible

64 

(R) Resistant 


As with standard disk diffusion methods, dilution procedures require the use of laboratory control organisms. Standard ceftizoxime powder should give MIC values in the following ranges.
 

Organism

ATCC 

MIC (mcg/mL) 

Escherichia coli 

25922

0.03-0.12 

Pseudomonas aeruginosa 

27853

16-64

Staphylococcus aureus

25923

2-8

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Discontinued Warning IconPlease Note: This Brand Name drug is no longer available in the US.
(Generic versions may still be available.)

PATIENT INFORMATION

See WARNINGS, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and PRECAUTIONS.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

>

Discontinued Warning IconPlease Note: This Brand Name drug is no longer available in the US.
(Generic versions may still be available.)

PATIENT INFORMATION

See WARNINGS, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and PRECAUTIONS.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Discontinued Warning IconPlease Note: This Brand Name drug is no longer available in the US.
(Generic versions may still be available.)

Cefizox Patient Information Including Side Effects

Brand Names: Cefizox

Generic Name: ceftizoxime (Pronunciation: sef ti ZOX eem)

What is ceftizoxime injection (Cefizox)?

Ceftizoxime is in a group of drugs called cephalosporin (SEF a low spor in) antibiotics. It works by fighting bacteria in your body.

Ceftizoxime injection is used to treat many kinds of bacterial infections, including severe or life-threatening forms.

Ceftizoxime may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.

What are the possible side effects of ceftizoxime injection (Cefizox)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
  • severe pain, burning, irritation, or skin changes where the needle was placed;
  • skin rash, bruising, severe tingling, numbness, pain, muscle weakness;
  • uneven heartbeats;
  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms;
  • easy bruising or bleeding, unusual weakness;
  • fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash;
  • seizure (black-out or convulsions); or
  • jaundice (yellowing of the eyes or skin).

Less serious side effects are more likely to occur, such as:

  • pain, irritation, or hardening where the injection was given;
  • stomach pain, nausea, vomiting;
  • numbness or tingling;
  • headache; or
  • vaginal itching or discharge.

Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Cefizox (ceftizoxime) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

What is the most important information I should know about ceftizoxime injection (Cefizox)?

Do not use this medication if you are allergic to ceftizoxime, or to similar antibiotics, such as Ceclor, Ceftin, Cefzil, Duricef, Keflex, Omnicef, Spectracef, Suprax, and others.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs (especially penicillin). Also tell your doctor if you have liver or kidney disease, a stomach or intestinal disorder, or if you are malnourished.

Use this medication for the entire length of time prescribed by your doctor. Your symptoms may get better before the infection is completely treated. Ceftizoxime will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or has blood in it, call your doctor. Do not use any medicine to stop the diarrhea unless your doctor has told you to.

This medication can cause you to have unusual results with certain lab tests to check for glucose (sugar) in the urine. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using ceftizoxime.

Side Effects Centers

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(Generic versions may still be available.)

Cefizox Patient Information including How Should I Take

What should I discuss with my health care provider before using ceftizoxime injection (Cefizox)?

Do not use this medication if you are allergic to ceftizoxime, or to other cephalosporin antibiotics, such as:

  • cefaclor (Ceclor);
  • cefadroxil (Duricef);
  • cefdinir (Omnicef);
  • cefditoren (Spectracef);
  • cefixime (Suprax);
  • cefprozil (Cefzil);
  • ceftazidime (Fortaz);
  • cefotaxime (Claforan);
  • cefuroxime (Ceftin);
  • cephalexin (Keflex); and others.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs (especially penicillins), or if you have:

  • kidney disease;
  • liver disease;
  • a stomach or intestinal disorder such as colitis; or
  • if you are malnourished.

If you have any of these conditions, you may not be able to use ceftizoxime, or you may need a dosage adjustment or special tests during treatment.

FDA pregnancy category B. This medication is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.

Ceftizoxime can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I use ceftizoxime injection (Cefizox)?

Ceftizoxime is given as an injection into a muscle or a vein. Injection into a vein must be given slowly through an IV infusion, and can take up to 30 minutes to complete.

Your doctor, nurse, or other healthcare provider will give you this injection. You may be given instructions on how to use your injections at home. Do not use this medicine at home if you do not fully understand how to give the injection and properly dispose of needles, syringes, and other items used in giving the medicine.

Use the medication exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not use the medication in larger amounts, or use it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the instructions on your prescription label.

Use this medication for the entire length of time prescribed by your doctor. Your symptoms may get better before the infection is completely treated. Ceftizoxime will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

To use the medicine, thaw it in a refrigerator or at room temperature. Do not warm in a microwave or boiling water. Keep thawed medicine in the refrigerator and use it within 28 days after thawing it. Do not refreeze thawed medicine.

Side Effects Centers

Discontinued Warning IconPlease Note: This Brand Name drug is no longer available in the US.
(Generic versions may still be available.)

Cefizox Patient Information including If I Miss a Dose

What happens if I miss a dose (Cefizox)?

Use the medication as soon as you remember the missed dose. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and use the medicine at your next regularly scheduled time. Do not use extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

If you are receiving this medication at a clinic, call your doctor if you miss an appointment for your injection.

What happens if I overdose (Cefizox)?

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine. Symptoms of a ceftizoxime overdose may include seizure (convulsions).

What should I avoid while using ceftizoxime injection (Cefizox)?

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or has blood in it, call your doctor. Do not use any medicine to stop the diarrhea unless your doctor has told you to.

What other drugs will affect ceftizoxime injection (Cefizox)?

Before using ceftizoxime, tell your doctor if you are using any of the following drugs:

  • an antibiotic such as amikacin (Amikin), gentamicin (Garamycin), kanamycin (Kantrex), neomycin (Mycifradin, Neo-Fradin, Neo-Tab), netilmicin (Netromycin), streptomycin, or tobramycin (Nebcin, Tobi).

If you are using any of these drugs, you may not be able to use ceftizoxime, or you may need dosage adjustments or special tests during treatment.

There may be other drugs not listed that can affect ceftizoxime. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you use. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your doctor or pharmacist has information about ceftizoxime written for health professionals that you may read.


Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2010 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 1.03. Revision date: 4/12/2009.

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