Duramorph (Morphine Injection)
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Duramorph (Morphine Injection)

DURAMORPH
(morphine sulfate) Injection, USP

Not For Use in Continuous Microinfusion Devices

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Morphine is the most important alkaloid of opium and is a phenanthrene derivative. It is available as the sulfate salt, having the following structural formula:

DURAMORPH
  (morphine sulfate) Structural Formula Illustration

7,8-Didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methyl-(5α,6α)-morphinan-3,6-diol sulfate (2:1) (salt), pentahydrate
(C17H19NO3)2 • H2SO4 • 5H2O      Molecular Weight is 758.83

Preservative-free DURAMORPH (morphine sulfate injection, USP) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isobaric solution of morphine sulfate, free of antioxidants, preservatives or other potentially neurotoxic additives and is intended for intravenous, epidural or intrathecal administration as a narcotic analgesic. Each milliliter contains morphine sulfate 0.5 mg or 1 mg and sodium chloride 9 mg in Water for Injection. pH range is 2.5-6.5. Each 10 mL DOSETTE ampul of DURAMORPH (morphine injection) is intended for SINGLE USE ONLY. Discard any unused portion. DO NOT HEAT-STERILIZE.

What are the precautions when taking morphine injection (Duramorph)?

Before using morphine injection, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other narcotic pain medications (such as codeine); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients (such as sulfites found in some brands), which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: certain bowel diseases (paralytic ileus, infectious diarrhea).

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney disease, liver disease, lung diseases (such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary...

Read All Potential Precautions of Duramorph »

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

INDICATIONS

DURAMORPH (morphine injection) is a systemic narcotic analgesic for administration by the intravenous, epidural or intrathecal routes. It is used for the management of pain not responsive to non-narcotic analgesics. DURAMORPH (morphine injection) administered epidurally or intrathecally, provides pain relief for extended periods without attendant loss of motor, sensory or sympathetic function.

Not For Use in Continuous Microinfusion Devices

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

DURAMORPH (morphine injection) is intended for intravenous, epidural or intrathecal administration.

Not For Use in Continuous Microinfusion Devices

Intravenous Administration

Dosage

The initial dose of morphine should be 2 mg to 10 mg/70 kg of body weight. No information is available regarding the use of DURAMORPH (morphine injection) in patients under the age of 18.

Geriatric Use

Administer with extreme caution. (See PRECAUTIONS.)

Epidural Administration

DURAMORPH (morphine injection) SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED EPIDURALLY BY OR UNDER THE DIRECTION OF A PHYSICIAN EXPERIENCED IN THE TECHNIQUE OF EPIDURAL ADMINISTRATION AND WHO IS THOROUGHLY FAMILIAR WITH THE LABELING. IT SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED ONLY IN SETTINGS WHERE ADEQUATE PATIENT MONITORING IS POSSIBLE. RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT AND A SPECIFIC ANTAGONIST (NALOXONE INJECTION) SHOULD BE IMMEDIATELY AVAILABLE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION AS WELL AS COMPLICATIONS WHICH MIGHT RESULT FROM INADVERTENT INTRATHECAL OR INTRAVASCULAR INJECTION. (NOTE: INTRATHECAL DOSAGE IS USUALLY 1/10 THAT OF EPIDURAL DOSAGE.) PATIENT MONITORING SHOULD BE CONTINUED FOR AT LEAST 24 HOURS AFTER EACH DOSE, SINCE DELAYED RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION MAY OCCUR.

Proper placement of a needle or catheter in the epidural space should be verified before DURAMORPH (morphine injection) is injected.

Acceptable techniques for verifying proper placement include: a) aspiration to check for absence of blood or cerebrospinal fluid, or b) administration of 5 mL (3 mL in obstetric patients) of 1.5% PRESERVATIVE-FREE Lidocaine and Epinephrine (1:200,000) Injection and then observe the patient for lack of tachycardia (this indicates that vascular injection has not been made) and lack of sudden onset of segmental anesthesia (this indicates that intrathecal injection has not been made).

Epidural Adult Dosage

Initial injection of 5 mg in the lumbar region may provide satisfactory pain relief for up to 24 hours. If adequate pain relief is not achieved within one hour, careful administration of incremental doses of 1 to 2 mg at intervals sufficient to assess effectiveness may be given. No more than 10 mg/24 hr should be administered.

Thoracic administration has been shown to dramatically increase the incidence of early and late respiratory depression even at doses of 1 to 2 mg.

Geriatric Use

Administer with extreme caution. (See PRECAUTIONS.)

Epidural Pediatric Use

No information on use in pediatric patients is available. (See PRECAUTIONS.)

Intrathecal Administration

NOTE: INTRATHECAL DOSAGE IS USUALLY 1/10 THAT OF EPIDURAL DOSAGE.

DURAMORPH (morphine injection) SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED INTRATHECALLY BY OR UNDER THE DIRECTION OF A PHYSICIAN EXPERIENCED IN THE TECHNIQUE OF INTRATHECAL ADMINISTRATION AND WHO IS THOROUGHLY FAMILIAR WITH THE LABELING. IT SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED ONLY IN SETTINGS WHERE ADEQUATE PATIENT MONITORING IS POSSIBLE. RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT AND A SPECIFIC

ANTAGONIST (NALOXONE INJECTION) SHOULD BE IMMEDIATELY AVAILABLE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION AS WELL AS COMPLICATIONS WHICH MIGHT RESULT FROM INADVERTENT INTRAVASCULAR INJECTION. PATIENT MONITORING SHOULD BE CONTINUED FOR AT LEAST 24 HOURS AFTER EACH DOSE, SINCE DELAYED RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION MAY OCCUR. RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION (BOTH EARLY AND LATE ONSET) HAS OCCURRED MORE FREQUENTLY FOLLOWING INTRATHECAL ADMINISTRATION THAN EPIDURAL ADMINISTRATION.

Intrathecal Adult Dosage

A single injection of 0.2 to 1 mg may provide satisfactory pain relief for up to 24 hours. (CAUTION: THIS IS ONLY 0.4 TO 2 ML OF THE 5 MG/10 ML AMPUL OR 0.2 TO 1 ML OF THE 10 MG/10 ML AMPUL OF DURAMORPH (morphine injection) ). DO NOT INJECT INTRATHECALLY MORE THAN 2 ML OF THE 5 MG/10 ML AMPUL OR 1 ML OF THE 10 MG/10 ML AMPUL. USE IN THE LUMBAR AREA ONLY IS RECOMMENDED. Repeated intrathecal injections of DURAMORPH (morphine injection) are not recommended. A constant intravenous infusion of naloxone, 0.6 mg/hr, for 24 hours after intrathecal injection may be used to reduce the incidence of potential side effects.

Geriatric Use

Administer with extreme caution. (See PRECAUTIONS.)

Repeat Dosage

If pain recurs, alternative routes of administration should be considered, since experience with repeated doses of morphine by the intrathecal route is limited.

Intrathecal Pediatric Use

No information on use in pediatric patients is available. (See PRECAUTIONS.)

Safety And Handling Instructions

DURAMORPH (morphine injection) is supplied in sealed ampuls. Accidental dermal exposure should be treated by the removal of any contaminated clothing and rinsing the affected area with water.

Each ampul of DURAMORPH (morphine injection) contains a potent narcotic which has been associated with abuse and dependence among health care providers. Due to the limited indications for this product, the risk of overdosage and the risk of its diversion and abuse, it is recommended that special measures be taken to control this product within the hospital or clinic.

DURAMORPH (morphine injection) should be subject to rigid accounting, rigorous control of wastage and restricted access.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected for participate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. DO NOT USE IF COLOR IS DARKER THAN PALE YELLOW, IF IT IS DISCOLORED IN ANY OTHER WAY OR IF IT CONTAINS A PRECIPITATE.

HOW SUPPLIED

Preservative-Free DURAMORPH (morphine sulfate injection, USP) is available in amber DOSETTE ampuls for intravenous, epidural and intrathecal administration:

5 mg/10 mL (0.5 mg/mL) packaged in 10s (NDC 60977-016-02)
10 mg/10 mL (1 mg/mL) packaged in 10s (NDC 60977-017-01)

Also available from Baxter: INFUMORPH (Preservative-free Morphine Sulfate Sterile Solution) 200 mg/20 mL (10 mg/mL) and 500 mg/20 mL (25 mg/mL) for epidural and intrathecal administration via a continuous microinfusion device.

Storage

PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in carton at 20°- 25°C (68°- 77°F), excursions permitted to 15°- 30°C (59°- 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature] until ready to use. DO NOT FREEZE. DURAMORPH (morphine injection) contains no preservative or antioxidant. DISCARD ANY UNUSED PORTION. DO NOT HEAT-STERILIZE.

Manufactured by: Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL 60015 USA. For Product Inquiry 1 800 ANA DRUG (1-800-262-3784).

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

SIDE EFFECTS

The most serious adverse experience encountered during administration of DURAMORPH (morphine injection) is respiratory depression and/or respiratory arrest. This depression and/or respiratory arrest may be severe and could require intervention. (See WARNINGS and OVERDOSAGE.) Because of delay in maximum CNS effect with intravenously administered drug (30 min), rapid administration may result in overdosing. Single-dose neuraxial administration may result in acute or delayed respiratory depression for periods at least as long as 24 hours.

Tolerance and Myoclonus

See WARNINGS for discussion of these and related hazards.

While low doses of intravenously administered morphine have little effect on cardiovascular stability, high doses are excitatory, resulting from sympathetic hyperactivity and increase in circulating catecholamines. Excitation of the central nervous system, resulting in convulsions, may accompany high doses of morphine given intravenously. Dysphoric reactions may occur after any size dose and toxic psychoses have been reported.

Pruritus

Single-dose epidural or intrathecal administration is accompanied by a high incidence of pruritus that is dose-related but not confined to the site of administration. Pruritus, following continuous infusion of epidural or intrathecal morphine, is occasionally reported in the literature; these reactions are poorly understood as to their cause.

Urinary Retention

Urinary retention, which may persist 10 to 20 hours following single epidural or intrathecal administration, is a frequent side effect and must be anticipated primarily in male patients, with a somewhat lower incidence in females. Also frequently reported in the literature is the occurrence of urinary retention during the first several days of hospitalization for the initiation of continuous intrathecal or epidural morphine therapy. Patients who develop urinary retention have responded to cholinomimetic treatment and/or judicious use of catheters (see PRECAUTIONS).

Constipation

Constipation is frequently encountered during continuous infusion of morphine; this can usually be managed by conventional therapy.

Headache

Lumbar puncture-type headache is encountered in a significant minority of cases for several days following intrathecal catheter implantation; this, generally, responds to bed rest and/or other conventional therapy.

Other

Other adverse experiences reported following morphine therapy include—Dizziness, euphoria, anxiety, hypotension, confusion, reduced male potency, decreased libido in men and women, and menstrual irregularities including amenorrhea, depression of cough reflex, interference with thermal regulation and oliguria. Evidence of histamine release such as urticaria, wheals and/or local tissue irritation may occur. Nausea and vomiting are frequently seen in patients following morphine administration.

Pruritus, nausea/vomiting and urinary retention, if associated with continuous infusion therapy, may respond to intravenous administration of a low dose of naloxone (0.2 mg). The risks of using narcotic antagonists in patients chronically receiving narcotic therapy should be considered.

In general, side effects are amenable to reversal by narcotic antagonists.

NALOXONE INJECTION AND RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE IMMEDIATELY AVAILABLE FOR ADMINISTRATION IN CASE OF LIFE-THREATENING OR INTOLERABLE SIDE EFFECTS AND WHENEVER DURAMORPH (morphine injection) THERAPY IS BEING INITIATED.

Drug Abuse And Dependence

Controlled Substance

Morphine sulfate is a Schedule II narcotic under the United States Controlled Substance Act (21 U.S.C. 801-886).

Morphine is the most commonly cited prototype for narcotic substances that possess an addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability. A patient may be at risk for developing a dependence to morphine if used improperly or for overly long periods of time. As with all potent opioids which are µ-agonists, tolerance as well as psychological and physical dependence to morphine may develop irrespective of the route of administration (intravenous, intramuscular, intrathecal, epidural or oral). Individuals with a prior history of opioid or other substance abuse or dependence, being more apt to respond to the euphorogenic and reinforcing properties of morphine, would be considered to be at greater risk.

Care must be taken to avert withdrawal in patients who have been maintained on parenteral/oral narcotics when epidural or intrathecal administration is considered. Withdrawal symptoms may occur when morphine is discontinued abruptly or upon administration of a narcotic antagonist.

Read the Duramorph (morphine injection) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

DRUG INTERACTIONS

No information provided.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

WARNINGS

Morphine sulfate may be habit forming. (See Drug Abuse And Dependence.)

Overdoses may cause respiratory depression, coma and death.

DURAMORPH (morphine injection) administration should be limited to use by those familiar with the management of respiratory depression. Rapid intravenous administration may result in chest wall rigidity.

Prior to any epidural or intrathecal drug administration, the physician should be familiar with patient conditions (such as infection at the injection site, bleeding diathesis, anticoagulant therapy, etc.) which call for special evaluation of the benefit versus risk potential.

In the case of epidural or intrathecal administration, DURAMORPH (morphine injection) should be administered by or under the direction of a physician experienced in the techniques and familiar with the patient management problems associated with epidural or intrathecal drug administration. Because epidural administration has been associated with less potential for immediate or late adverse effects than intrathecal administration, the epidural route should be used whenever possible.

SEVERE RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION UP TO 24 HOURS FOLLOWING EPIDURAL OR INTRATHECAL ADMINISTRATION HAS BEEN REPORTED.

BECAUSE OF THE RISK OF SEVERE ADVERSE EFFECTS WHEN THE EPIDURAL OR INTRATHECAL ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION IS EMPLOYED, PATIENTS MUST BE OBSERVED IN A FULLY EQUIPPED AND STAFFED ENVIRONMENT FOR AT LEAST 24 HOURS AFTER THE INITIAL DOSE.

THE FACILITY MUST BE EQUIPPED TO RESUSCITATE PATIENTS WITH SEVERE OPIATE OVERDOSAGE, AND THE PERSONNEL MUST BE FAMILIAR WITH THE USE AND LIMITATIONS OF SPECIFIC NARCOTIC ANTAGONISTS (NALOXONE, NALTREXONE) IN SUCH CASES.

Tolerance and Myoclonic Activity

PATIENTS SOMETIMES MANIFEST UNUSUAL ACCELERATION OF NEURAXIAL MORPHINE REQUIREMENTS, WHICH MAY CAUSE CONCERN REGARDING SYSTEMIC ABSORPTION AND THE HAZARDS OF LARGE DOSES; THESE PATIENTS MAY BENEFIT FROM HOSPITALIZATION AND DETOXIFICATION. TWO CASES OF MYOCLONIC-LIKE SPASM OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN PATIENTS RECEIVING MORE THAN 20 MG/DAY OF INTRATHECAL MORPHINE. AFTER DETOXIFICATION, IT MIGHT BE POSSIBLE TO RESUME TREATMENT AT LOWER DOSES, AND SOME PATIENTS HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFULLY CHANGED FROM CONTINUOUS EPIDURAL MORPHINE TO CONTINUOUS INTRATHECAL MORPHINE. REPEAT DETOXIFICATION MAY BE INDICATED AT A LATER DATE. THE UPPER DAILY DOSAGE LIMIT FOR EACH PATIENT DURING CONTINUING TREATMENT MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Control of pain by neuraxial opiate delivery is always accompanied by considerable risk to the patients and requires a high level of skill to be successfully accomplished. The task of treating these patients must be undertaken by experienced clinical teams, well-versed in patient selection, evolving technology and emerging standards of care. For safety reasons, it is recommended that administration of DURAMORPH (morphine injection) by the epidural or intrathecal routes be limited to the lumbar area. Intrathecal use has been associated with a higher incidence of respiratory depression than epidural use.

Seizures may result from high doses. Patients with known seizure disorders should be carefully observed for evidence of morphine-induced seizure activity.

Use in Patients with Increased Intracranial Pressure or Head Injury

DURAMORPH (morphine injection) should be used with extreme caution in patients with head injury or increased intracranial pressure. Pupillary changes (miosis) from morphine may obscure the existence, extent and course of intracranial pathology. High doses of neuraxial morphine may produce myoclonic events (see WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS). Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for adverse drug reactions when evaluating altered mental status or movement abnormalities in patients receiving this modality of treatment.

Use in Chronic Pulmonary Disease

Care is urged in using this drug in patients who have a decreased respiratory reserve (e.g., emphysema, severe obesity, kyphoscoliosis or paralysis of the phrenic nerve). DURAMORPH (morphine injection) should not be given in cases of chronic asthma, upper airway obstruction or in any other chronic pulmonary disorder without due consideration of the known risk of acute respiratory failure following morphine administration in such patients.

Use in Hepatic or Renal Disease

The elimination half-life of morphine may be prolonged in patients with reduced metabolic rates and with hepatic and/or renal dysfunction. Hence, care should be exercised in administering DURAMORPH (morphine injection) epidurally to patients with these conditions, since high blood morphine levels, due to reduced clearance, may take several days to develop.

Use in Biliary Surgery or Disorders of the Biliary Tract

As significant morphine is released into the systemic circulation from neuraxial administration, the ensuing smooth muscle hypertonicity may result in biliary colic.

Use with Disorders of the Urinary System

Initiation of neuraxial opiate analgesia is frequently associated with disturbances of micturition, especially in males with prostatic enlargement. Early recognition of difficulty in urination and prompt intervention in cases of urinary retention is indicated.

Use in Ambulatory Patients

Patients with reduced circulating blood volume, impaired myocardial function or on sympatholytic drugs should be monitored for the possible occurrence of orthostatic hypotension, a frequent complication in single-dose neuraxial morphine analgesia.

Use with Other Central Nervous System Depressants

The depressant effects of morphine are potentiated by the presence of other CNS depressants such as alcohol, sedatives, antihistaminics or psychotropic drugs. Use of neuroleptics in conjunction with neuraxial morphine may increase the risk of respiratory depression.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Morphine is without known carcinogenic or mutagenic effects and is not known to impair fertility at non-narcotic doses in animals, but studies of the carcinogenic and mutagenic potential or the effect on fertility of DURAMORPH (morphine injection) have not been conducted.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects—Pregnancy Category C

Morphine sulfate is not teratogenic in rats at 35 mg/kg/day (thirty-five times the usual human dose) but does result in increased pup mortality and growth retardation at doses that narcotize the animal ( > 10 mg/kg/day, ten times the usual human dose). DURAMORPH (morphine injection) should only be given to pregnant women when no other method of controlling pain is available and means are at hand to manage the delivery and perinatal care of the opiate-dependent infant.

Nonteratogenic Effects

Infants born to mothers who have been taking morphine chronically may exhibit withdrawal symptoms.

Labor and Delivery

Intravenous morphine readily passes into the fetal circulation and may result in respiratory depression in the neonate. Naloxone and resuscitative equipment should be available for reversal of narcotic-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. In addition, intravenous morphine may reduce the strength, duration and frequency of uterine contraction resulting in prolonged labor.

Epidurally and intrathecally administered morphine readily passes into the fetal circulation and may result in respiratory depression of the neonate. Controlled clinical studies have shown that epidural administration has little or no effect on the relief of labor pain.

Nursing Mothers

Morphine is excreted in maternal milk. Effects on the nursing infant are not known.

Pediatric Use

Adequate studies, to establish the safety and effectiveness of spinal morphine in pediatric patients, have not been performed, and usage in this population is not recommended.

Geriatric Use

The pharmacodynamic effects of neuraxial morphine in the elderly are more variable than in the younger population. Patients will vary widely in the effective initial dose, rate of development of tolerance and the frequency and magnitude of associated adverse effects as the dose is increased. Initial doses should be based on careful clinical observation following "test doses", after making due allowances for the effects of the patient's age and infirmity on his/her ability to clear the drug, particularly in patients receiving epidural morphine.

Elderly patients may be more susceptible to respiratory depression and/or respiratory arrest following administration of morphine.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OVERDOSE

PARENTERAL ADMINISTRATION OF NARCOTICS IN PATIENTS RECEIVING EPIDURAL OR INTRATHECAL MORPHINE MAY RESULT IN OVERDOSAGE.

Overdosage of morphine is characterized by respiratory depression, with or without concomitant CNS depression. In severe overdosage, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest and death may occur. Since respiratory arrest may result either through direct depression of the respiratory center or as the result of hypoxia, primary attention should be given to the establishment of adequate respiratory exchange through provision of a patent airway and institution of assisted, or controlled, ventilation. The narcotic antagonist, naloxone, is a specific antidote. An initial dose of 0.4 to 2 mg of naloxone should be administered intravenously, simultaneously with respiratory resuscitation. If the desired degree of counteraction and improvement in respiratory function is not obtained, naloxone may be repeated at 2- to 3-minute intervals. If no response is observed after 10 mg of naloxone has been administered, the diagnosis of narcotic-induced, or partial narcotic-induced, toxicity should be questioned. Intramuscular or subcutaneous administration may be used if the intravenous route is not available.

As the duration of effect of naloxone is considerably shorter than that of epidural or intrathecal morphine, repeated administration may be necessary. Patients should be closely observed for evidence of renarcotization.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

DURAMORPH (morphine injection) is contraindicated in those medical conditions which would preclude the administration of opioids by the intravenous route—allergy to morphine or other opiates, acute bronchial asthma, upper airway obstruction.

DURAMORPH (morphine injection) , like all opioid analgesics, may cause severe hypotension in an individual whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a depleted blood volume or a concurrent administration of drugs, such as phenothiazines or general anesthetics. (See also PRECAUTIONS: Use with Other Central Nervous System Depressants.)

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Morphine produces a wide spectrum of pharmacologic effects including analgesia, dysphoria, euphoria, somnolence, respiratory depression, diminished gastrointestinal motility and physical dependence. Opiate analgesia involves at least three anatomical areas of the central nervous system: the periaqueductal-periventricular gray matter, the ventromedial medulla and the spinal cord. A systematically administered opiate may produce analgesia by acting at any, all or some combination of these distinct regions. Morphine interacts predominantly with the µ-receptor. The µ-binding sites of opioids are very discretely distributed in the human brain, with high densities of sites found in the posterior amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, nucleus caudatus, putamen and certain cortical areas. They are also found on the terminal axons of primary afferents within laminae I and II (substantia gelatinosa) of the spinal cord and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve.

Morphine has an apparent volume of distribution ranging from 1.0 to 4.7 L/kg after intravenous dosage. Protein binding is low, about 36%, and muscle tissue binding is reported as 54%. A blood-brain barrier exists, and when morphine is introduced outside of the CNS (e.g., intravenously), plasma concentrations of morphine remain higher than the corresponding CSF morphine levels. Conversely, when morphine is injected into the intrathecal space, it diffuses out into the systemic circulation slowly, accounting for the long duration of action of morphine administered by this route.

Morphine has a total plasma clearance which ranges from 0.9 to 1.2 L/kg/h (liters/kilogram/hour) in postoperative patients, but shows considerable interindividual variation. The major pathway of clearance is hepatic glucuronidation to morphine-3-glucuronide, which is pharmacologically inactive. The major excretion path of the conjugate is through the kidneys, with about 10% in the feces. Morphine is also eliminated by the kidneys, 2 to 12% being excreted unchanged in the urine. Terminal half-life is commonly reported to vary from 1.5 to 4.5 hours, although the longer half-lives were obtained when morphine levels were monitored over protracted periods with very sensitive radioimmunoassay methods. The accepted elimination half-life in normal subjects is 1.5 to 2 hours.

"Selective" blockade of pain sensation is possible by neuraxial application of morphine. In addition, duration of analgesia may be much longer by this route compared to systemic administration. However, CNS effects, associated with systemic administration, are still seen. These include respiratory depression, sedation, nausea and vomiting, pruritus and urinary retention. In particular, both early and late respiratory depression (up to 24 hours post dosing) have been reported following neuraxial administration. Circulation of the spinal fluid may also result in high concentrations of morphine reaching the brain stem directly.

The incidence of unwanted CNS effects, including delayed respiratory depression, associated with neuraxial application of morphine, is related to the circulatory dynamics of the epidural venous plexus and the spinal fluid. The lipid solubility and degree of ionization of morphine plays an important part in both the onset and duration of analgesia and the CNS effects. Morphine has a pKa 7.9, with an octanol/water partition coefficient of 1.42 at pH 7.4. At this pH, the tertiary amino group in each of the opioids is mostly ionized, making the molecule water soluble. Morphine, with additional hydroxyl groups on the molecule, is significantly more water soluble than any other opioid in clinical use.

Morphine, injected into the epidural space, is rapidly absorbed into the general circulation. Absorption is so rapid that the plasma concentration-time profiles closely resemble those obtained after intravenous or intramuscular administration. Peak plasma concentrations averaging 33^1-0 ng/mL (range 5-62 ng/mL) are achieved within 10 to 15 minutes after administration of 3 mg of morphine. Plasma concentrations decline in a multiexponential fashion. The terminal half-life is reported to range from 39 to 249 minutes (mean of 90±34.3 min) and, though somewhat shorter, is similar in magnitude as values reported after intravenous and intramuscular administration (1.5-4.5 h). CSF concentrations of morphine, after epidural doses of 2 to 6 mg in postoperative patients, have been reported to be 50 to 250 times higher than corresponding plasma concentrations. The CSF levels of morphine exceed those in plasma after only 15 minutes and are detectable for as long as 20 hours after the injection of 2 mg of epidural morphine. Approximately 4% of the dose injected epidurally reaches the CSF. This corresponds to the relative minimum effective epidural and intrathecal doses of 5 mg and 0.25 mg, respectively. The disposition of morphine in the CSF follows a biphasic pattern, with an early half-life of 1.5 h and a late phase half-life of about 6 h. Morphine crosses the dura slowly, with an absorption half-life across the dura averaging 22 minutes. Maximum CSF concentrations are seen 60-90 minutes after injection. Minimum effective CSF concentrations for postoperative analgesia average 150 ng/mL (range < 1-380 ng/mL).

The intrathecal route of administration circumvents meningeal diffusion barriers and, therefore, lower doses of morphine produce comparable analgesia to that induced by the epidural route. After intrathecal bolus injection of morphine, there is a rapid initial distribution phase lasting 15-30 minutes and a half-life in the CSF of 42-136 min (mean 90±16 min). Derived from limited data, it appears that the disposition of morphine in the CSF, from 15 minutes postintrathecal administration to the end of a six-hour observation period, represents a combination of the distribution and elimination phases. Morphine concentrations in the CSF averaged 332±137 ng/mL at 6 hours, following a bolus dose of 0.3 mg of morphine. The apparent volume of distribution of morphine in the intrathecal space is about 22±8 mL.

Time-to-peak plasma concentrations, however, are similar (5-10 min) after either epidural or intrathecal bolus administration of morphine. Maximum plasma morphine concentrations after 0.3 mg intrathecal morphine have been reported from < 1 to 7.8 ng/mL. The minimum analgesic morphine plasma concentration during Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA) has been reported as 20-40 ng/mL, suggesting that any analgesic contribution from systemic redistribution would be minimal after the first 30-60 minutes with epidural administration and virtually absent with intrathecal administration of morphine.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

PATIENT INFORMATION

No information provided. Please refer to the WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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PATIENT INFORMATION

No information provided. Please refer to the WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Disclaimer

Duramorph Consumer

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

MORPHINE - INJECTION

(MORE-feen)

WARNING: Morphine has a high risk for abuse and severe, possibly fatal, breathing problems. The risk for harm is higher if you use the wrong dose/strength, or if you use it along with other drugs that might also affect breathing. Be sure you know how to use morphine and what other drugs you should avoid taking with it. Get immediate help if you notice unusual slow/shallow breathing.

Keep this medicine in a safe place to prevent theft, misuse, or abuse. If a child accidentally swallows this drug, get emergency medical help right away.

USES: This medication is used to treat severe pain. It acts on certain centers in the brain to give you pain relief. This medication is a narcotic pain reliever (opiate-type).

HOW TO USE: Depending on your specific product, this medication is given by injection into a vein, into a muscle, or under the skin. Use this product exactly as directed by your doctor. Read and learn all of the manufacturer's instructions for preparation and use. If you have any questions about using this medication properly, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

Preservative-free morphine may also be given by a doctor as an injection into the area around the spinal cord (epidural) or into the fluid-filled space that contains the spinal cord (intrathecal). In this case, the medication is first given in the hospital where you can be monitored closely. If your doctor directs you to continue using this medication at home, it is usually given as a continuous injection using an infusion pump placed under your skin.

The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. For children, the dosage may also be based on weight. Do not increase your dose, use the medication more frequently, or use it for a longer time than prescribed. Properly stop the medication when so directed.

Pain medications work best if they are used when the first signs of pain occur. If you wait until the pain has worsened, the medication may not work as well.

Before using, check this product visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the liquid. Before injecting each dose, clean the injection site with rubbing alcohol. If this medication is given into a muscle or under the skin, it is important to change the location of the injection site with each dose to avoid problem areas under the skin.

Learn how to store and discard needles and medical supplies safely. Consult your pharmacist for more details.

If nausea occurs, consult your doctor or pharmacist for ways to decrease it (such as taking antihistamines, lying down for 1 to 2 hours with as little head movement as possible).

This medication may cause withdrawal reactions, especially if it has been used regularly for a long time or in high doses. In such cases, withdrawal symptoms (such as restlessness, watery eyes, widened pupils, sweating, runny nose) may occur if you suddenly stop using this medication. To prevent withdrawal reactions, your doctor may reduce your dose gradually. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details, and report any withdrawal reactions immediately.

When this medication is used for a long time, it may not work as well. Your doctor may need to increase your dose or change your medication. Talk with your doctor if this medication stops working well.

Along with its benefits, this medication may rarely cause abnormal drug-seeking behavior (addiction). This risk may be increased if you have abused alcohol or drugs in the past. Use this medication exactly as prescribed to lessen the risk of addiction.

Tell your doctor if your pain persists or worsens.

Disclaimer

Duramorph Consumer (continued)

SIDE EFFECTS: Nausea, vomiting, constipation, lightheadedness, dizziness, drowsiness, increased sweating, or dry mouth may occur. Pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site may occur if this medication is given into a muscle or under the skin. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

To prevent constipation, maintain a diet adequate in fiber, drink plenty of water, and exercise. Consult your pharmacist for help in selecting a laxative (such as a stimulant type with stool softener).

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: slow/shallow breathing, fainting, mental/mood changes (such as agitation, hallucinations, confusion), difficulty urinating, vision changes, slow/fast heartbeat.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: severe stomach/abdominal pain, change in the amount of urine, seizures.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Read the Duramorph (morphine injection) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

PRECAUTIONS: Before using morphine injection, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other narcotic pain medications (such as codeine); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients (such as sulfites found in some brands), which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: certain bowel diseases (paralytic ileus, infectious diarrhea).

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney disease, liver disease, lung diseases (such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-COPD), breathing problems (such as slow/shallow breathing, sleep apnea), a certain spinal problem (kyphoscoliosis), certain heart problems (any type of irregular heartbeat), personal or family history of regular use/abuse of drugs/alcohol, brain disorders (such as seizures, head injury, tumor, increased intracranial pressure), underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism), difficulty urinating (for example, due to enlarged prostate or narrowed urethra), disease of the pancreas (such as pancreatitis), mental/mood disorders (such as toxic psychosis), gallbladder disease, adrenal gland problem (such as Addison's disease), intestinal disorders (such as colitis, blockage).

This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Avoid alcoholic beverages.

To lower your risk of dizziness and lightheadedness, get up slowly when rising from a sitting or lying position.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist that you are using this medication.

Older adults may be more sensitive to the effects of this drug, especially slow/shallow breathing and drowsiness.

Before using this medication, women of childbearing age should talk with their doctor(s) about the risks and benefits. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or if you plan to become pregnant. During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. It may slightly increase the risk of birth defects if used during the first two months of pregnancy. Also, using it for a long time or in high doses near the expected delivery date may harm the unborn baby. To lessen the risk, use the smallest effective dose for the shortest possible time. Tell the doctor right away if you notice any symptoms in your newborn baby such as slow/shallow breathing, irritability, abnormal/persistent crying, vomiting, or diarrhea.

This drug passes into breast milk and the effect on a nursing infant is not known. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor before breast-feeding.

Disclaimer

Duramorph Consumer (continued)

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with your doctor or pharmacist first.

This drug should not be used with the following medication because a very serious interaction may occur: naltrexone.

If you are currently using this medication listed above, tell your doctor or pharmacist before starting morphine.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and nonprescription/herbal products you may use, especially of: cimetidine, rifampin, certain medications for pain (opiate partial agonists such as butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine).

The risk of serious side effects (such as slow/shallow breathing, severe drowsiness/dizziness) may be increased if this medication is used with other products that may also affect breathing or cause drowsiness. Therefore, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are using other products such as alcohol, anti-seizure drugs (such as phenobarbital), medicine for sleep or anxiety (such as alprazolam, diazepam, zolpidem), muscle relaxants, other narcotic pain relievers (such as codeine), and psychiatric medicines (such as risperidone, amitriptyline, trazodone). Your medications or doses of your medications may need to be changed.

Check the labels on all your medicines (such as cough-and-cold products) because they may contain ingredients that cause drowsiness. Ask your pharmacist about using those products safely.

This medication may interfere with certain laboratory tests (including amylase and lipase levels), possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.

This document does not contain all possible interactions. Therefore, before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the products you use. Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist.

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call the US National Poison Hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: slow/shallow breathing, severe drowsiness, slow heartbeat, severe dizziness, pinpoint pupils.

NOTES: Do not share this medication with others. It is against the law.

This medication has been prescribed for your current condition only. Do not use it later for another condition unless told to do so by your doctor. A different medication may be necessary in that case.

MISSED DOSE: If you use this medication regularly and miss a dose, use it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

STORAGE: Store at room temperature away from light. Different brands/packaging of this medication may have different storage requirements. Read the package labeling or ask your pharmacist for the storage requirements for the product you are using. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

Information last revised January 2012. Copyright(c) 2012 First Databank, Inc.

DURAMORPH
(morphine sulfate) Injection, USP

Not For Use in Continuous Microinfusion Devices

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Morphine is the most important alkaloid of opium and is a phenanthrene derivative. It is available as the sulfate salt, having the following structural formula:

DURAMORPH
  (morphine sulfate) Structural Formula Illustration

7,8-Didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methyl-(5α,6α)-morphinan-3,6-diol sulfate (2:1) (salt), pentahydrate
(C17H19NO3)2 • H2SO4 • 5H2O      Molecular Weight is 758.83

Preservative-free DURAMORPH (morphine sulfate injection, USP) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isobaric solution of morphine sulfate, free of antioxidants, preservatives or other potentially neurotoxic additives and is intended for intravenous, epidural or intrathecal administration as a narcotic analgesic. Each milliliter contains morphine sulfate 0.5 mg or 1 mg and sodium chloride 9 mg in Water for Injection. pH range is 2.5-6.5. Each 10 mL DOSETTE ampul of DURAMORPH (morphine injection) is intended for SINGLE USE ONLY. Discard any unused portion. DO NOT HEAT-STERILIZE.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

DURAMORPH
(morphine sulfate) Injection, USP

Not For Use in Continuous Microinfusion Devices

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Morphine is the most important alkaloid of opium and is a phenanthrene derivative. It is available as the sulfate salt, having the following structural formula:

DURAMORPH
  (morphine sulfate) Structural Formula Illustration

7,8-Didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methyl-(5α,6α)-morphinan-3,6-diol sulfate (2:1) (salt), pentahydrate
(C17H19NO3)2 • H2SO4 • 5H2O      Molecular Weight is 758.83

Preservative-free DURAMORPH (morphine sulfate injection, USP) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isobaric solution of morphine sulfate, free of antioxidants, preservatives or other potentially neurotoxic additives and is intended for intravenous, epidural or intrathecal administration as a narcotic analgesic. Each milliliter contains morphine sulfate 0.5 mg or 1 mg and sodium chloride 9 mg in Water for Injection. pH range is 2.5-6.5. Each 10 mL DOSETTE ampul of DURAMORPH (morphine injection) is intended for SINGLE USE ONLY. Discard any unused portion. DO NOT HEAT-STERILIZE.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

DURAMORPH
(morphine sulfate) Injection, USP

Not For Use in Continuous Microinfusion Devices

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Morphine is the most important alkaloid of opium and is a phenanthrene derivative. It is available as the sulfate salt, having the following structural formula:

DURAMORPH
  (morphine sulfate) Structural Formula Illustration

7,8-Didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methyl-(5α,6α)-morphinan-3,6-diol sulfate (2:1) (salt), pentahydrate
(C17H19NO3)2 • H2SO4 • 5H2O      Molecular Weight is 758.83

Preservative-free DURAMORPH (morphine sulfate injection, USP) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isobaric solution of morphine sulfate, free of antioxidants, preservatives or other potentially neurotoxic additives and is intended for intravenous, epidural or intrathecal administration as a narcotic analgesic. Each milliliter contains morphine sulfate 0.5 mg or 1 mg and sodium chloride 9 mg in Water for Injection. pH range is 2.5-6.5. Each 10 mL DOSETTE ampul of DURAMORPH (morphine injection) is intended for SINGLE USE ONLY. Discard any unused portion. DO NOT HEAT-STERILIZE.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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