Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (ActHIB)
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Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (ActHIB)

ActHIB®
Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine
(Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate)

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Caution: Federal (USA) law prohibits dispensing without prescription.

NOTE: Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) - ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is identical to Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) - OmniHIB® (distributed by SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals); and is manufactured by Pasteur Mérieux Sérums Vaccins S.A.

ActHIB®, Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate), produced by Aventis Pasteur SA, is a sterile, lyophilized powder which is reconstituted at the time of use with either saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride) or Aventis Pasteur Inc. (AvP) Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (whole-cell pertussis vaccine D.P. or Tripedia®, AvP Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (DTaP) (when reconstituted known as TriHIBitTM) for intramuscular use only. The vaccine consists of the Haemophilus b capsular polysaccharide (polyribosyl- ribitol- phosphate, PRP), a high molecular weight polymer prepared from the Haemophilus influenzae type b strain 1482 grown in a semi-synthetic medium, covalently bound to tetanus toxoid.1 The lyophilized ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® powder and saline diluent contain no preservative. The tetanus toxoid is prepared by extraction, ammonium sulfate purification, and formalin inactivation of the toxin from cultures of Clostridium tetani (Harvard strain) grown in a modified Mueller and Miller medium.2 The toxoid is filter sterilized prior to the conjugation process. Potency of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is specified on each lot by limits on the content of PRP polysaccharide and protein in each dose and the proportion of polysaccharide and protein in the vaccine which is characterized as high molecular weight conjugate.

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is reconstituted with saline diluent, each single dose of 0.5 mL is formulated to contain 10 µg of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to 24 µg of inactivated tetanus toxoid, and 8.5% of sucrose.

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is combined with AvP DTP vaccine by reconstitution, each single dose (0.5 mL) is formulated to contain 10 µg of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to 24 µg of inactivated tetanus toxoid 8.5% of sucrose 6.7 Lf of diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf of tetanus toxoid, and an estimate of 4 protective units of pertussis vaccine. Thimerosal (mercury derivative) 1:10,000 is added as a preservative to AvP DTP vaccine. (Refer to product insert for AvP whole-cell DTP.)

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is combined with Tripedia® (TriHIBitTM) by reconstitution for booster dose, each single dose (0.5 mL) is formulated to contain 10 µg of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to 24 µg of inactivated tetanus toxoid, 8.5% of sucrose, 6.7 Lf of diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf of tetanus toxoid and 46.8 µg of pertussis antigens. Thimerosal (mercury derivative) 1:10,000 is added as a preservative to Tripedia®. (Refer to product insert for Tripedia®.)

The reconstituted vaccine, using saline diluent, appears clear and colorless. The reconstituted vaccine, using AvP DTP vaccine, appears whitish in color. TriHIBitTM, the reconstituted vaccine, using Tripedia® is a homogenous white suspension.

What are the possible side effects of this vaccine (Acthib, Hiberix)?

Keep track of any and all side effects your child has after receiving this vaccine. When the child receives another haemophilus B vaccine in the future, you will need to tell the child's doctor if the first shot caused any side effects.

Becoming infected with haemophilus B is much more dangerous to your child's health than receiving the vaccine to protect against it. Like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects, but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.

Get emergency medical help if your child has any of these signs of an allergic reaction:...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of ActHIB »

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

INDICATIONS

ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® combined with AvP DTP vaccine by reconstitution is indicated for the active immunization of infants and children 2 through 18 months of age for the prevention of invasive disease caused by H. influenzae type b and/or diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis.

TriHIBit® , ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® combined with Tripedia® by reconstitution, is indicated for the active immunization of children 15 to 18 months of age for prevention of invasive disease caused by H. influenzae type b and diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis.

Antibody levels associated with protection may not be achieved earlier than two weeks following the last recommended dose.

Only AvP whole-cell DTP, Tripedia® or 0.4% Sodium Chloride diluent may be used for reconstitution of lyophilized ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® . TriHIBit® , ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® combined with Tripedia® by reconstitution, should not be administered to infants younger than 15 months of age.

As with any vaccine, vaccination with ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit® ) or 0.4% Sodium Chloride diluent may not protect 100% of susceptible individuals.

A single injection containing diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus b conjugate antigens may be more acceptable to parents and may increase compliance with vaccination programs. Therefore, in these situations it may be the judgment of the physician that it is of benefit to administer a single injection of whole-cell DTP or DTaP and Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and or discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit If these conditions exist, the vaccine should not be administered.

RECONSTITUTION:

Using Connaught Laboratories Inc. DTP, cleanse both the DTP and ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® vial rubber stoppers with a suitable germicide prior to reconstitution. Thoroughly agitate the vial of AvP DTP then withdraw a 0.6 mL dose and inject into the vial of lyophilized ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ®. After reconstitution and thorough agitation, the combined vaccines will appear whitish in color. Withdraw and administer 0.5 mL dose of the combined vaccines intramuscularly. Vaccine should be used within 24 hours after reconstitution. Refer to Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

To prepare TriHIBit®, cleanse both the Tripedia® and ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® vial rubber stoppers with a suitable germicide prior to reconstitution. Thoroughly agitate the vial of AvP Tripedia® then withdraw a 0.6 mL dose and inject into the vial of lyophilized ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ®. After reconstitution and thorough agitation, the combined vaccines will appear whitish in color. Withdraw and administer 0.5 mL dose of the combined vaccines intramuscularly. Vaccine should be used immediately (within 30 minutes) after reconstitution. Refer to Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

Using saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride) cleanse the vaccine vial rubber stopper with a suitable germicide and inject the entire volume of diluent contained in the vial or syringe into the vial of lyophilized vaccine. Thorough agitation is advised to ensure complete reconstitution. The entire volume of reconstituted vaccine is then drawn back into the syringe before injecting one 0.5 mL dose intramuscularly. The vaccine will appear clear and colorless. Vaccine should be used within 24 hours after reconstitution. Refer to Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR RECONSTITUTION OF ActHIB® WITH AvP DTP OR RECONSTITUTION OF ActHIB® WITH TRIPEDIA® (TriHIBit® ) OR SALINE DILUENT (0.4% SODIUM CHLORIDE):

Before injection, the skin over the site to be injected should be cleansed with a suitable germicide. After insertion of the needle, aspirate to ensure that the needle has not entered a blood vessel.

DO NOT INJECT INTRAVENOUSLY

Each dose of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit® )or saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride) is administered intramuscularly in the outer aspect of the vastus lateralis (mid-thigh) or deltoid. The vaccine should not be injected into the gluteal area or areas where there may be a nerve trunk. During the course of primary immunizations, injections should not be made more than once at the same site.

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is reconstituted with AvP DTP the combined vaccines are indicated for infants and children 2 through 18 months of age for intramuscular administration in accordance with the schedule indicated in Table 8. 14 When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBitTM), it the combined vaccines are indicated for children 15 to 18 months of age for intramuscular administration in accordance with the schedule in Table 8. 14



TABLE 8 14

RECOMMENDED IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE FOR ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) AND DTP OR TRIPEDIA

For Previously Unvaccinated Children

DOSE

AGE

IMMUNIZATION

First, Second and Third

At 2, 4 and 6 months

ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® / reconstituted with DTP or with

saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride)

Fourth

At 15 to 18 months

ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with DTP or with Tripedia ® (TriHIBitTM ) or with saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride)

Fifth

At 4 to 6 years

DTP or Tripedia ®

For Previously Unvaccinated Children

The number of doses of Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine indicated depends on the age at which immunization is begun. A child 7 to 11 months of age should receive 2 doses of Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine at 8-week intervals and a booster dose at 15 to 18 months of age. A child 12 to 14 months of age should receive 1 dose of Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine followed by a booster 2 months later.

Preterm infants should be vaccinated according to their chronological age from birth. 35

Interruption of the recommended schedule with a delay between doses should not interfere with the final immunity achieved with ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit®) or saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride). There is no need to start the series over again regardless of the time elapsed between doses

It is acceptable to administer a booster dose of TriHIBit®, ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia®, following a primary series of Haemophilus b conjugate and whole-cell DTP vaccines, or a primary series of a combination vaccine containing whole-cell DTP.

HOW SUPPLIED

ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® RECONSTITUTED WITH WHOLE-CELL DTP

Vial, 1 Dose, lyophilized vaccine (10 x 1 Dose vials per package), packaged with one 7.5 mL vial of Connaught Laboratories, Inc. Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine as Diluent - Product No. 49281-549-10.

ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® RECONSTITUTED WITH 0.4% SODIUM CHLORIDE DILUENT

Vial, 1 Dose, lyophilized vaccine (5 x 1 Dose vials per package), packaged with 0.6 mL vial containing diluent (5 x 0.6 mL vials per package) - Product No. 49281-545-05

Administer vaccine within 24 hours after reconstitution.

TriHIBit®, ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® RECONSTITUTED WITH TRIPEDIA®

Vial, 1 Dose, lyophilized vaccine (5 x 1 Dose vials per package), packaged with five 0.6 mL vials of Tripedia® as Diluent (5 x 0.6 mL vials per package) (contains NO preservative) - Product No. 49281-597-05

Administer vaccine immediately (within 30 minutes) after reconstitution.

STORAGE

Store lyophilized vaccine packaged with saline diluent, Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis or Tripedia® between 2° - 8°C (35° - 46°F).

DO NOT FREEZE

REFERENCES

1. Chu CY, et al. Further studies on the immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal type 6A polysaccharide-protein conjugate. Infect Immun 40: 245-246, 1983

2. Mueller JH, et al. Production of diphtheria toxin of high potency (100 Lf) on a reproducible medium. J Immunol 40: 21-32, 1941

3. Adams WG, et al. Decline of Childhood Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Disease in the Hib Vaccine Era. JAMA 269: 221-226, 1993

4. Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines for prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease among infants and children two months of age and older. MMWR 40: No. RR-1, 1991

5. Broome CV. Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b infections in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J6: 779-782, 1987

6. ACIP. Polysaccharide vaccine for prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. MMWR 34: 201-205, 1985.

7. Istre GR, et al. Risk factors for primary invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease: Increased risk from day care attendance and school-aged household members. J Pediatr 106: 190-195, 1985

8. Redmond SR, et al.Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. An epidemiologic study with special reference to day-care centers. JAMA 252: 2581-2584, 1984

9. Murphy TV, et al. County-wide surveillance of invasive Haemophilus infections: Risk of associated cases in Child Care Programs (CCPs). Twenty-third Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Abstract #788) 229, 1983

10. Fleming D, et al. Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) disease - secondary spread in day care. Twenty-fourth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Abstract #967) 261, 1984

11. C.C. Prevention of secondary cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. MMWR 31: 672-680, 1982

12. Michaels RH, et al. Pharyngeal colonization with Haemophilus influenzae type b: A longitudinal study of families with a child with meningitis or epiglottitis due to H. influenzae type b. J Infec Dis 136: 222-227, 1977

13. Holmes SJ, et al. Immunogenicity of four Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in 17- to 19-month-old children. J Pediatr 118: 364-371, 1991

14. Data on file, Pasteur Mérieux Sérums & Vaccins S.A.

15. Peltola H, et al. Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteremic infections with the capsular polysaccharide vaccine. N Engl J Med 310: 1561-1566, 1984

16. Decker MD, et al. Comparative trial in infants of four conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. J Pediatr 120: 184-189, 1992

17. Granoff DM, et al. Differences in the immunogenicity of three Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in infants. J Pediatr 121: 187-194, 1992

18. Data on file, Connaught Laboratories, Inc.

19. Kaplan SL, et al. Immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-tetanus protein conjugate vaccine in children with sickle hemoglobinopathy or malignancies, and after systemic Haemophilus influenzae type b infection. J Pediatr 120: 367-370, 1992

20. Clemens JD, et al. Impact of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Polysaccharide-Tetanus Protein Conjugate Vaccine on responses to concurrently administered Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine. JAMA 267: 673-678, 1992

21. Steinhoff MC, et al. Antibody responses to Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in men with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 325 (26): 1837-1842, 1991

22. ACIP. General recommendations on immunization. MMWR 38: 205-227, 1989

23. ACIP. Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis: Recommendations for Vaccine Use and Other Preventive Measures. MMWR 40: No. RR-10, 1991

24. FDA Workshop on Haemophilus b Polysaccharide Vaccine - A Preliminary Report. MMWR 36: 529-531, 1987

25. I.M. Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccines: Evidence Bearing on Causality. Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccines. In: Stratton KR, Howe CJ, Johnston Jr. RB, eds. 1993. National Academy Press. Washington DC, pp. 236-273, 1993

26. Rothstein EP, et al. Comparison of antigenuria after immunization with three Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. Pediatr Infect Dis J 10: 311-314, 1991

27. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System - United States. MMWR 39: 730-733, 1990

28. C.C. National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act: Requirements for permanent vaccination records and for reporting of selected events after vaccination. MMWR 37: 197-200, 1988

29. National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 (Amended 1987)

30. Cody CL, et al. Nature and rates of adverse reactions associated with DTP and DT immunizations in infants and children. Pediatr 68: 650-660, 1981

31. Barkin RM, et al. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine: reactogenicity of commercial products. Pediatr 63: 256-260, 1979

32. Baraff LJ, et al. DTP-associated reactions: an analysis by injection site, manufacturer, prior reactions and dose. Pediatr 73: 31-39, 1984

33. Long SS, et al. Longitudinal study of adverse reactions following diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine in infancy. Pediatr 85: 294-302, 1990

34. D'Cruz OF, et al. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (Guillain-Barré Syndrome) after immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine. J Pediatr 115: 743-746, 1989

35. American Academy of Pediatrics. Immunization in Special Clinical Circumstances. In: Peter G, ed. 1994 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 23rd ed. Elk Grove Village, IL 51-52, 1994

Product information as of September 2000

Manufactured by:
Aventis Pasteur SA
Lyon France
US Govt License #1279

Distributed by:
Aventis Pasteur Inc.
Swiftwater PA 18370 USA
1-800-VACCINE (1-800-822-2463)

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

SIDE EFFECTS

More than 7,000 infants and young children (<2 years of age) have received at least one dose of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® during US clinical trials. Of these, 1,064 subjects 12 to 24 months of age who received ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® alone reported no serious or life threatening adverse reactions.

Adverse reactions commonly associated with a first ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® immunization of children 12 to 15 months of age who were previously unimmunized with any Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, include local pain, redness and swelling at the injection site. Systemic reactions include fever, irritability and lethargy. 14,18

In a multicenter trial, ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® was administered to US infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age concomitantly, at separate sites, with AvP D.P. The adverse events observed are summarized in Table 5.

TABLE 5 14

PERCENTAGE OF INFANTS PRESENTING WITH LOCAL OR SYSTEMIC REACTIONS

AT 6, 24, AND 48 HOURS OF IMMUNIZATION WITH ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® ADMINISTERED

SIMULTANEOUSLY, AT SEPARATE SITES, WITH AvP DTP VACCINE

AGE AT IMMUNIZATION

REACTION

2 Months

(n= 365)

4 Months

(n= 364)

6 Months

(n= 365)

6 Hrs.

24 Hrs.

48 Hrs.

6 Hrs.

24 Hrs.

48 Hrs.

6 Hrs.

24 Hrs.

48 Hrs.

Local §
Tenderness

46.3%

11.5%

2.2%

23.4%

7.4%

1.1%

19.2%

6.0%

1.1%

Erythema

14.3%

4.1%

0.3%

8.8%

5.8%

0.6%

11.5%

6.9%

1.6%

Induration

22.5%

6.3%

1.9%

12.4%

4.7%

0.8%

9.6%

3.8%

1.1%

Systemic*
Fever>100.8° F

20.1%

1.3%

0.6%

14.6%

6.6%

1.4%

15.7%

8.8%

0.8%

Irritability

72.6%

21.9%

12.6%

48.4%

25.0%

13.2%

44.1%

25.2%

10.1%

Drowsiness

57.5%

29.9%

10.4%

44.2%

18.1%

7.4%

32.6%

13.4%

2.5%

Anorexia

15.3%

5.8%

4.9%

8.0%

5.0%

3.0%

5.5%

4.9%

2.2%

Diarrhea

4.4%

6.6%

5.2%

5.0%

4.7%

4.7%

4.7%

6.3%

3.6%

Vomiting

2.7%

4.1%

2.7%

2.5%

3.3%

2.8%

2.2%

2.7%

1.9%

Persistent Crying Percentage of infants within 72 hours after immunization was 1.6% after dose one, 0.6%

after dose two, and 0.3% after dose three.

§ Local reactions were evaluated at the ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® injection site.

* The adverse reaction profile is defined by the concomitant use of AvP DTP vaccine.

The number of individuals observed at each time point for fever varied from 357 to 363.

In general, the rates of minor systemic reactions after ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine)
® and DTP immunization were comparable to those usually reported after DTP vaccine alone. 30,31,32,33

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP whole-cell DTP was administered in infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, the systemic adverse experience profile (Table 6) was comparable to that observed when the two vaccines were given separately (Table 5). An increase in the rates of local reactions was observed within the 24- hour period after immunization. 18

TABLE 6 18

PERCENTAGE OF INFANTS PRESENTING WITH LOCAL OR SYSTEMIC REACTIONS

AT 6, 24, AND 48 HOURS OF IMMUNIZATION WITH ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® COMBINED

WITH CLI DTP VACCINE BY RECONSTITUTION

AGE AT IMMUNIZATION

REACTION

2 Months

(n= 204)

4 Months

(n= 199)

6 Months

(n= 200)

6 Hrs.

24 Hrs.

48 Hrs.

6 Hrs.

24 Hrs.

48 Hrs.

6 Hrs.

24 Hrs.

48 Hrs.

Local
Tenderness

47.1%

18.6%

3.4%

33.2%

17.6%

4.0%

25.0%

17.0%

3.5%

Erythema > 1"

11.8%

2.5%

0.0%

11.6%

9.1%

2.5%

10.5%

13.5%

3.5%

Induration

31.4%

17.2%

3.9%

26.1%

20.1%

7.5%

28.5%

22.5%

10.0%

Systemic
Fever > 100.4° F

24.6%

2.0%

0.5%

15.8%

6.1%

3.6%

13.0%

10.3%

3.1%

Irritability

70.6%

22.1%

12.8%

56.8%

31.2%

19.1%

40.5%

28.2%

15.9%

Drowsiness

60.3%

23.5%

11.3%

42.2%

20.6%

9.6%

30.3%

12.3%

5.6%

Anorexia

17.7%

6.4%

2.9%

10.1%

7.5%

5.5%

5.1%

4.6%

4.1%

Diarrhea

2.5%

5.4%

1.5%

3.5%

3.5%

2.5%

2.6%

4.1%

5.6%

Vomiting

2.9%

5.4%

2.9%

3.0%

5.0%

3.0%

3.6%

3.6%

1.5%

Persistent Crying Percentage of infants within 72 hours after immunization was 0.0% after dose one, 0.0%

after dose two, and 0.005% after dose three.

In a third US trial when ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® was combined with DTP by reconstitution, approximately 1,450 doses were administered to infants starting at 2 months of age. Adverse reactions observed at 6 and 24 hours respectively after the first immunization (n=498) were tenderness 66.9% and 30.7%; erythema (>1") 8.6% and 2.2%; induration 38.2% and 21.7%; irritability 77.9% and 35.7%; drowsiness 63.7% and 34.1%; anorexia 26.1% and 12.9%; diarrhea 6.8% and 9.0%; and vomiting 3.4% and 3.8%. 18 One hypotonic hyporesponsive episode (HHE) was seen in an infant following the second dose in this trial. This is consistent with the HHE incidence rate observed with DTP vaccination alone. 4

Adverse reactions associated with ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® generally subsided after 24 hours and usually do not persist beyond 48 hours after immunization.

No data are available on the safety of a booster dose of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® combined with AvP DTP vaccine by reconstitution given in 15 to 20 month old children.

In a US trial, safety of TriHIBit®,ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® combined with Tripedia® by reconstitution, in 110 children aged 15 to 20 months was compared to ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® given with Tripedia® at separate sites to 110 children. All children received three doses of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® or HibTITER® )and three doses of whole-cell DTP at approximately 2, 4 and 6 months of age.



TABLE 7 18

PERCENTAGE OF 15 TO 20-MONTH-OLD CHILDREN PRESENTING WITH LOCAL

OR SYSTEMIC REACTIONS AT 6, 24 AND 48 HOURS OF IMMUNIZATION WITH TriHIBit®

COMPARED TO ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® AND TRIPEDIA® GIVEN CONCOMITANTLY AT SEPARATE SITES

 

6 Hrs. Post- dose

24 Hrs. Post- dose

48 Hrs. Post- dose

REACTION

Separate

Injections*

TriHIBit®

Separate

Injections*

TriHIBit®

Separate

Injections*

TriHIBit®

 
Local

n= 110

n= 110

n= 110

n= 110

n= 110

n= 110

Tenderness

17.3/ 20.0

19.1

8.2/ 8.2

10.0

1.8/ 0.9

1.8

Erythema > 1"

0.9/ 0.0

3.6

2.7/ 0.9

3.6

0.9/ 0.0

1.8

Induration**

3.6/ 5.5

2.7

2.7/ 3.6

8.2

4.5/ 0.9

3.6

Swelling

3.6/ 3.6

3.6

2.7/ 1.8

5.5

0.9/ 0.0

4.5

Systemic

n= 103-110

n= 102-109

n= 105-110

n= 103-108

n= 104-110

n= 103-109

Fever > 102.2° F

0

2.0

1.0

1.9

1.9

0

Irritability

27.3

22.9

20.9

17.6

12.7

10.1

Drowsiness

36.4

30.3

17.3

13.9

12.7

11.0

Anorexia

12.7

9.2

10.0

6.5

6.4

2.8

Vomiting

0.9

1.8

0.9

1.9

0.9

2.8

Persistent Cry

0

0

0

0

0

0

Unusual Cry

0

0

0

0

0

0.9

* Tripedia injection site ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® injection site.

** Induration is defined as hardness with or without swelling.

TriHIBit® ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® combined with Tripedia® by reconstitution, was administered to approximately 850 children, aged 15 to 20 months. All children received three doses of a Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® or HibTITER®)and three doses of whole-cell DTP at approximately 2, 4 and 6 months of age .Local reactions were typically mild and usually resolved within the 24 to 48 hour period after immunization. The most common local reactions were pain and tenderness at the injection site. Systemic reactions occurring were usually mild and resolved within 72 hours of immunization. The reaction rates were similar to those observed in Table 7 when TriHIBit® ,ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® was administered and when Tripedia® was administered alone as a booster. 18

In a randomized, double-blind US clinical trial, ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® was given concomitantly with DTP to more than 5,000 infants and hepatitis B vaccine was given with DTP to a similar number. In this large study, deaths due to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and other causes were observed but were not different in the two groups. In the first 48 hours following immunization, two definite and three possible seizures were observed after ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) and DTP in comparison with none after hepatitis B vaccine and DTP 18 This rate of seizures following ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® and DTP was not greater than previously reported in infants receiving DTP alone. (Refer to product insert for AvP DTP.) Other adverse reactions reported with administration of other Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines include urticaria, seizures, hives, renal failure and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). 18,34 A cause and effect relationship among any of these events and the vaccination has not been established.

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® was given with DTP and inactivated poliovirus vaccine to more than 100,000 Finnish infants, the rate and extent of serious adverse reactions were not different from those seen when other Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines were evaluated in Finland (i.e. HibTITER®,ProHIBiT®)18

However, the number of subjects studied with TriHIBit®,ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® combined with Tripedia® by reconstitution was inadequate to detect rare serious adverse events.

Reporting of Adverse Events

Reporting by the parent or guardian of all adverse events occurring after vaccine administration should be encouraged. Adverse events following immunization with vaccine should be reported by the health-care provider to the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Reporting forms and information about reporting requirements or completion of the form can be obtained from VAERS through a toll-free number 1-800-822-7967. 26,27,28

Health-care providers also should report these events to the Director of Medical Affairs, Connaught Laboratories, Inc., Route 611, PO Box 187, Swiftwater, PA 18370 or call 1-800-822-2463.

Read the ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

DRUG INTERACTIONS

When AvP DTP is used to reconstitute ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® or Tripedia® is used to reconstitute ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® (TriHIBit® )and administered to immunosuppressed persons or persons receiving immunosuppressive therapy, the expected antibody response may not be obtained.

Immunosuppressive therapies, including irradiation, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, cytotoxic drugs, and corticosteroids (used in greater than physiologic doses), may reduce the immune response to vaccines. Short-term (< 2 weeks) corticosteroid therapy or intra-articular, bursal, or tendon injections with corticosteroids should not be immunosuppressive. Although no specific studies with pertussis vaccine are available, if immunosuppressive therapy will be discontinued shortly, it is reasonable to defer vaccination until the patient has been off therapy for one month; otherwise, the patient should be vaccinated while still on therapy. 23

If ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit® ) has been administered to persons receiving immunosuppressive therapy, a recent injection of immunoglobulin or having an immunodeficiency disorder, an adequate immunologic response may not be obtained.

In clinical trials, ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® was administered, at separate sites, concomitantly with one or more of the following vaccines: D.P. DTaP, Poliovirus Vaccine Live Oral (OPV), Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine (MMR), Hepatitis B vaccine and occasionally Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV). No impairment of the antibody response to the individual antigens, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis was demonstrated when ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® was given at the same time, at separate sites, with IPV or MMR. 18 In addition, more than 47,000 infants in Finland have received a third dose of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® concomitantly with MMR vaccine with no increase in serious or unexpected adverse events. 18

No significant impairment of antibody response to Measles, Mumps and Rubella was noted in 15 - 20 month-old children who received TriHIBit® , ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® concomitantly with MMR. No data are available to the manufacturer concerning the effects on immune response of OPV, IPV or Hepatitis B vaccine when given concurrently with ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with 0.4% Sodium Chloride or AvP DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® TriHIBit ®.18

As with other intramuscular injections, use with caution in patients on anticoagulant therapy.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

WARNINGS

If ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit® ) is administered to immunosuppressed persons or persons receiving immunosuppressive therapy, the expected antibody responses may not be obtained. This includes patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic HIV- infection, 21 severe combined immunodeficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, or agammaglobulinemia; altered immune states due to diseases such as leukemia, lymphoma, or generalized malignancy; or an immune system compromised by treatment with corticosteroids, alkylating drugs, antimetabolites or radiation. 22 (Refer to product inserts for AvP whole-cell DTP and Tripedia®.)

TriHIBit® ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® combined with Tripedia® by reconstitution should not be administered to infants younger than 15 months of age.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Care is to be taken by the health-care provider for the safe and effective use of this vaccine.

EPINEPHRINE INJECTION (1:1000) MUST BE IMMEDIATELY AVAILABLE SHOULD AN ANAPHYLACTIC OR OTHER ALLERGIC REACTIONS OCCUR DUE TO ANY COMPONENT OF THE VACCINE.

Prior to an injection of any vaccine, all known precautions should be taken to prevent adverse reactions. This includes a review of the patient's history with respect to possible sensitivity and any previous adverse reactions to the vaccine or similar vaccines, previous immunization history, current health status (see CONTRAINDICATIONS; WARNINGS sections) and a current knowledge of the literature concerning the use of the vaccine under consideration. (Refer to product inserts for AvP whole-cell DTP and Tripedia®)

The health-care provider should ask the parent or guardian about the recent health status of the infant or child to be immunized including the infant's or child's previous immunization history prior to administration of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® AvP DTP and Tripedia® .

Minor illnesses such as upper respiratory infection with or without low grade fever are not contraindications for use of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® .23

As reported with Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccines, 24 cases of H influenzae type b disease may occur subsequent to vaccination and prior to the onset of protective effects of the vaccine. 18 (See INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.)

The evidence favors rejection of a causal relation between immunization with Hib conjugate vaccines and earlyonset Hib disease. 25

Antigenuria has been detected in some instances following receipt of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ®; therefore, urine antigen detection may not have definitive diagnostic value in suspected H influenzaetype b disease within one week of immunization. 26

Special care should be taken to ensure that ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP DTP or Tripedia® or saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride) is not injected into a blood vessel.

Administration of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit®) or saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride) is not contraindicated in individuals with HIV infection. 22

A separate, sterile syringe and needle or a sterile disposable unit should be used for each patient to prevent transmission of hepatitis or other infectious agents from person to person. Needles should not be recapped and should be properly disposed.

Caution: The stopper of the diluent vial contains dry natural latex rubber which may cause allergic reactions. The lyophilized vaccine vial contains no rubber of any kind.

CARCINOGENESIS, MUTAGENESIS, IMPAIRMENT OF FERTILITY

ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit® has not been evaluated for its carcinogenic, mutagenic potential or impairment of fertility.)

PREGNANCY

REPRODUCTIVE STUDIES - PREGNANCY CATEGORY C
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit® or saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride). It is also not known whether ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit® or saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride) can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit® or saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride) is NOT recommended for use in a pregnant woman and is not approved for use in children 5 years of age or older.

PEDIATRIC

USE SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF TriHIBitTM, ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® RECONSTITUTED WITH Tripedia® , IN INFANTS BELOW THE AGE OF 15 MONTHS HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.)

SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® RECONSTITUTED WITH AvP DTP OR SALINE DILUENT (0.4% SODIUM CHLORIDE) IN INFANTS BELOW THE AGE OF SIX WEEKS HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.)

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OVERDOSE

No information provided.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® IS CONTRAINDICATED IN CHILDREN WITH A HISTORY OF HYPERSENSITIVITY TO ANY COMPONENT OF THE VACCINE AND TO ANY COMPONENT OF DTP OR TRIPEDIA® WHEN COMBINED BY RECONSTITUTION WITH THESE VACCINES. ANY CONTRAINDICATION FOR DTP IS A CONTRAINDICATION FOR ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® RECONSTITUTED WITH D.P. ANY CONTRAINDICATION FOR TRIPEDIA® IS A CONTRAINDICATION FOR TriHIBitTM, ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® RECONSTITUTED WITH TRIPEDIA® (Refer to product inserts for AvP whole-cell DTP and Tripedia® )

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

H influenzae type b was the leading cause of invasive bacterial disease among children in the United States prior to licensing of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines. Based on its active surveillance areas, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now estimate that H influenzae type b disease in children under the age of 5 years has been reduced by 95%. 3 Before effective vaccines were introduced,it was estimated that one in 200 children developed invasive H influenzae type b disease by the age of 5 years. In children less than 5 years of age, the mortality rate for invasive H influenzae type b disease ranged between 3% and 6%. 3 In more than 60% of these children, meningitis was the clinical syndrome and permanent sequelae ranging from mild hearing loss to mental retardation affecting 20% to 30% of all survivors. 3 Ninety-five percent of the cases of invasive H influenzae disease among children <5 years of age were caused by organisms with the type b polysaccharide capsule. Approximately two-thirds of all cases of invasive H influenzae type b disease affected infants and children <15 months of age, a group for which a vaccine was not available until late 1990. 4,5

Incidence rates of invasive H influenzae type b disease have been shown to be increased in certain high-risk groups, such as native Americans (both American Indians and Eskimos), blacks, individuals of lower socioeconomic status, and patients with asplenia, sickle cell disease, Hodgkin's disease, and antibody deficiency syndromes. 5,6 Studies also have suggested that the risk of acquiring primary invasive H influenzaetype b disease for children under 5 years of age appears to be greater for those who attend day care facilities. 7,8,9,10

The potential for person to person transmission of the organism among susceptible individuals has been recognized. Studies of secondary spread of disease in household contacts of index patients have shown a substantially increased risk among exposed household contacts under 4 years of age. 11 Adults can be colonized with H influenzae type b from children infected with the organism. 12

The response to ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is typical of a T-dependent immune response to antigen. The prominent isotype of anticapsular PRP antibody induced by ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is IgG. 13 A substantial booster response has been demonstrated in children 12 months of age or older who previously received two or three doses. Bactericidal activity against H influenzae type b is demonstrated in serum after immunization and statistically correlates with the anti-PRP antibody response induced by ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® 14

Antibody to H influenzae capsular polysaccharide (anti-PRP) titers of >1.0 µg/mL following vaccination with unconjugated PRP vaccine correlated with long-term protection against invasive H influenzae type b disease in children older than 24 months of age. 15 Although the relevance of this threshold to clinical protection after immunization with conjugate vaccines is not known, particularly in light of the induced, immunologic memory, this level continues to be considered as indicative of long-term protection. 4 The immunogenicity and safety of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® has been demonstrated in the United States and worldwide. ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® induced, on average anti- PRP levels >1.0 µg/mL in 90% of infants after the primary series and in more than 98% of infants after a booster dose. 14

Two clinical trials supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have compared the anti-PRP antibody responses to three Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines in racially mixed populations of children. These studies were done in Tennessee 16 (Table 1) and in Minnesota, Missouri and Texas 17 (Table 2) in infants immunized with ActHIB® and other Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. All Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines were administered concomitantly with Poliovirus Vaccine Live Oral and DTP vaccines at separate sites.

TABLE 1 16

ANTI-PRP ANTIBODY RESPONSES IN 2-MONTH-OLD INFANTS NIH TRIAL IN TENNESSEE

GEOMETRIC MEAN TITER (GMT)

(µg/ mL)

VACCINE

N*

Pre-Immunization

Post Second Immunization

Post Third Immunization

Post Third Immunization %>1.0µg/mL

PRP-T (ActHIB® )

65

0.10

0.30

3.64

83%

PRP-OMP (PedvaxHIB®)

64

0.11

0.84

N/A

50%**

HbOC (HibTITER® )

61

0.07

0.13

3.08

75%

TABLE 217

ANTI-PRP ANTIBODY RESPONSES IN 2- MONTH- OLD INFANTS

NIH TRIAL IN MINNESOTA, MISSOURI AND TEXAS

GEOMETRIC MEAN TITER (GMT)

(µg/ mL)

VACCINE

N*

Pre- Immunization

Post Second Immunization

Post Third § Immunization

Post Third § Immunization %>1.0µg/mL

PRP-T (ActHIB® )

142

0.25

1.25

6.37

97%

PRP-OMP (PedvaxHIB® )

149

0.18

4.00

N/A

85%**

HbOC (HibTITER®)

167

0.17

0.45

6.31

90%

* N= Number of Children

§ Sera were obtained after the third dose from 86 and 110 infants, in PRP-T and HbOC vaccine groups, respectively.

Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate)

*** Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Meningococcal Protein Conjugate)

** Seroconversion after the recommended 2-dose primary immunization series is shown.

Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Diphtheria CRM 197 Protein Conjugate)

N/A Not applicable in this comparison trial although third dose data have been published. 16,17

Native American populations have had high rates of H influenzae type b disease and have been observed to have low immune responses to Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines. Following three doses of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® at six weeks, four and six months of age, 75% of Native Americans in Alaska showed an anti-PRP antibody titer of >1.0 µg/mL. 18

Children 12 to 24 months of age who had not previously received Haemophilus b conjugate vaccination were immunized with a single dose of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ®. GMT anti-PRP antibody responses were 5.12 µg/mL (90% responding with >1.0 µg/mL) for children 12 to 15 months of age and 4.4 µg/mL (82% responding with <1.0 µg/mL) for children 17 to 24 months of age. 18

These trials demonstrated that ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® consistently conferred an anti-PRP antibody response previously shown to correlate with protection, when administered either as a regimen of three doses at least four to eight weeks apart in infants 2 to 6 months of age or as a single dose in children 12 months of age and older. 18

ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® has been found to be immunogenic in children with sickle cell anemia, a condition which may cause increased susceptibility to Haemophilus b disease. Two doses of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® given at two-month intervals induced anti-PRP antibody titers of >1.0 µg/mL in 89% of these children with a mean age of 11 months. This is comparable to anti-PRP antibody levels demonstrated in normal children of similar age following two doses of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ®. 19

ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® COMBINED WITH WHOLE-CELL PERTUSSIS VACCINE (DTP) BY RECONSTITUTION FOR PRIMARY IMMUNIZATION

Comparative clinical trials demonstrated that a similar anti-PRP response was achieved in infants as young as 2 months old when one dose of AvP whole-cell DTP vaccine was used to reconstitute lyophilized ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® (Table 3). 14,18

TABLE 3 18

ANTI-PRP RESPONSES IN 2-MONTH-OLD INFANTS FOLLOWING IMMUNIZATION WITH

ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® COMBINED WITH CONNAUGHT LABORATORIES, INC. DTP BY RECONSTITUTION

GEOMETRIC MEAN TITER (GMT)

(µg/mL)

STUDY SITE

N*

Pre-Immunization

Post Second Immunization

Post Third Immunization

Post Third Immunization%>1.0 µg/ mL

US

45

0.13

0.55

4.49

91

US

135

0.12

0.43

4.46

85

Chile

94

0.09

4.31

6.94

96

* N=Number of Children

Antibody responses to diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis antigens were also measured in this trial. Post dose three antibody responses to all measured vaccine antigens were similar, within each study, when infants who received the combined vaccine were compared to infants who received whole-cell DTP and ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® separately. Interference with the antibody response to the pertussis component has been suggested with a DTP vaccine unlicensed in the US. 20 Percentages of subjects achieving antibody titers over 1 µg/mL and GMT to PRP in 2-month-old infants following immunization with ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® combined with AvP DTP by reconstitution was similar when compared to infants who received DTP and ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® separately (84% versus 85% and 4.3 µg/mL versus 4.8 µg/mL). 14,18

TriHIBitTM, ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® COMBINED WITH TRIPEDIA® VACCINE BY RECONSTITUTION FOR BOOSTER DOSE Randomized comparative clinical trials demonstrated that the anti-PRP response achieved in 15 to 20 month old children after one dose of TriHIBitTM, Tripedia® and ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® combination vaccine, was similar to that achieved when the two vaccines were given concomitantly at different sites with separate needles and syringes (Table 4). 18 All children had received three doses of a Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (HibTITER® or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ®) and three doses of a whole-cell DTP vaccine prior to entry into this clinical trial.

TABLE 4 18

ANTI-PRP RESPONSES IN 15 TO 20-MONTH-OLD CHILDREN FOLLOWING IMMUNIZATION

With TriHIBitTM COMPARED TO ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® AND TRIPEDIA GIVEN CONCOMITANTLY AT SEPARATE SITES

IMMUNOGENICITY

 

Pre- Dose

Post- Dose

 

TriHIBit®

Separate

Injections

TriHIBit®

Separate

Injections

N*

88

94

93

98

Anti- PRP (µg/mL)

0.89

1.15

90.30

80.90

%>1 µg/mL

45.50

53.20

100.00

100.00

* N=Number of Children

Geometric mean titers in response to diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (PT and FHA) were also similar between groups. (Refer to product insert for Tripedia®). A difference in four-fold antibody response to FHA was noted in this trial. However, the clinical significance of this difference is not known at present.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

PATIENT INFORMATION

The health-care provider should inform the parent or guardian of the benefits and risks of the vaccine.

Prior to administration of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit® ) or saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride), the parent or guardian should be asked about the recent health status of the infant or child to be immunized.

The physician should inform the parent or guardian about the significant adverse reactions that have been temporally associated with the administration of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with saline or DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit® ). The parent or guardian should be instructed to report any serious adverse reactions to their health-care provider.

As proof of the child's immunization record, the date, lot number and manufacturer of the vaccine administered should be recorded. 27,28,29

The US Department of Health and Human Services has established a new Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to accept all reports of suspected adverse events after the administration of any vaccine, including but not limited to the reporting of events required by the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986. 27 The toll-free number for VAERS forms and information is 1-800-822-7967.

The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, established by the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986, requires physicians and other health-care providers who administer vaccines to maintain permanent vaccination records and to report occurrences of certain adverse events to the US Department of Health and Human Services. Reportable events include those listed in the Act for each vaccine and events specified in the package insert as contraindications to further doses of the vaccine. 28,29

The health-care provider should inform the parent or guardian of the importance of completing the immunization series.

The health-care provider should provide the Vaccine Information Materials (VIMs) which are required to be given with each immunization.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

>

PATIENT INFORMATION

The health-care provider should inform the parent or guardian of the benefits and risks of the vaccine.

Prior to administration of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with AvP DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit® ) or saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride), the parent or guardian should be asked about the recent health status of the infant or child to be immunized.

The physician should inform the parent or guardian about the significant adverse reactions that have been temporally associated with the administration of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with saline or DTP or ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® reconstituted with Tripedia® (TriHIBit® ). The parent or guardian should be instructed to report any serious adverse reactions to their health-care provider.

As proof of the child's immunization record, the date, lot number and manufacturer of the vaccine administered should be recorded. 27,28,29

The US Department of Health and Human Services has established a new Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to accept all reports of suspected adverse events after the administration of any vaccine, including but not limited to the reporting of events required by the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986. 27 The toll-free number for VAERS forms and information is 1-800-822-7967.

The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, established by the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986, requires physicians and other health-care providers who administer vaccines to maintain permanent vaccination records and to report occurrences of certain adverse events to the US Department of Health and Human Services. Reportable events include those listed in the Act for each vaccine and events specified in the package insert as contraindications to further doses of the vaccine. 28,29

The health-care provider should inform the parent or guardian of the importance of completing the immunization series.

The health-care provider should provide the Vaccine Information Materials (VIMs) which are required to be given with each immunization.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

ActHIB®
Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine
(Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate)

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Caution: Federal (USA) law prohibits dispensing without prescription.

NOTE: Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) - ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is identical to Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) - OmniHIB® (distributed by SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals); and is manufactured by Pasteur Mérieux Sérums Vaccins S.A.

ActHIB®, Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate), produced by Aventis Pasteur SA, is a sterile, lyophilized powder which is reconstituted at the time of use with either saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride) or Aventis Pasteur Inc. (AvP) Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (whole-cell pertussis vaccine D.P. or Tripedia®, AvP Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (DTaP) (when reconstituted known as TriHIBitTM) for intramuscular use only. The vaccine consists of the Haemophilus b capsular polysaccharide (polyribosyl- ribitol- phosphate, PRP), a high molecular weight polymer prepared from the Haemophilus influenzae type b strain 1482 grown in a semi-synthetic medium, covalently bound to tetanus toxoid.1 The lyophilized ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® powder and saline diluent contain no preservative. The tetanus toxoid is prepared by extraction, ammonium sulfate purification, and formalin inactivation of the toxin from cultures of Clostridium tetani (Harvard strain) grown in a modified Mueller and Miller medium.2 The toxoid is filter sterilized prior to the conjugation process. Potency of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is specified on each lot by limits on the content of PRP polysaccharide and protein in each dose and the proportion of polysaccharide and protein in the vaccine which is characterized as high molecular weight conjugate.

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is reconstituted with saline diluent, each single dose of 0.5 mL is formulated to contain 10 µg of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to 24 µg of inactivated tetanus toxoid, and 8.5% of sucrose.

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is combined with AvP DTP vaccine by reconstitution, each single dose (0.5 mL) is formulated to contain 10 µg of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to 24 µg of inactivated tetanus toxoid 8.5% of sucrose 6.7 Lf of diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf of tetanus toxoid, and an estimate of 4 protective units of pertussis vaccine. Thimerosal (mercury derivative) 1:10,000 is added as a preservative to AvP DTP vaccine. (Refer to product insert for AvP whole-cell DTP.)

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is combined with Tripedia® (TriHIBitTM) by reconstitution for booster dose, each single dose (0.5 mL) is formulated to contain 10 µg of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to 24 µg of inactivated tetanus toxoid, 8.5% of sucrose, 6.7 Lf of diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf of tetanus toxoid and 46.8 µg of pertussis antigens. Thimerosal (mercury derivative) 1:10,000 is added as a preservative to Tripedia®. (Refer to product insert for Tripedia®.)

The reconstituted vaccine, using saline diluent, appears clear and colorless. The reconstituted vaccine, using AvP DTP vaccine, appears whitish in color. TriHIBitTM, the reconstituted vaccine, using Tripedia® is a homogenous white suspension.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

ActHIB®
Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine
(Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate)

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Caution: Federal (USA) law prohibits dispensing without prescription.

NOTE: Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) - ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is identical to Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) - OmniHIB® (distributed by SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals); and is manufactured by Pasteur Mérieux Sérums Vaccins S.A.

ActHIB®, Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate), produced by Aventis Pasteur SA, is a sterile, lyophilized powder which is reconstituted at the time of use with either saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride) or Aventis Pasteur Inc. (AvP) Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (whole-cell pertussis vaccine D.P. or Tripedia®, AvP Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (DTaP) (when reconstituted known as TriHIBitTM) for intramuscular use only. The vaccine consists of the Haemophilus b capsular polysaccharide (polyribosyl- ribitol- phosphate, PRP), a high molecular weight polymer prepared from the Haemophilus influenzae type b strain 1482 grown in a semi-synthetic medium, covalently bound to tetanus toxoid.1 The lyophilized ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® powder and saline diluent contain no preservative. The tetanus toxoid is prepared by extraction, ammonium sulfate purification, and formalin inactivation of the toxin from cultures of Clostridium tetani (Harvard strain) grown in a modified Mueller and Miller medium.2 The toxoid is filter sterilized prior to the conjugation process. Potency of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is specified on each lot by limits on the content of PRP polysaccharide and protein in each dose and the proportion of polysaccharide and protein in the vaccine which is characterized as high molecular weight conjugate.

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is reconstituted with saline diluent, each single dose of 0.5 mL is formulated to contain 10 µg of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to 24 µg of inactivated tetanus toxoid, and 8.5% of sucrose.

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is combined with AvP DTP vaccine by reconstitution, each single dose (0.5 mL) is formulated to contain 10 µg of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to 24 µg of inactivated tetanus toxoid 8.5% of sucrose 6.7 Lf of diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf of tetanus toxoid, and an estimate of 4 protective units of pertussis vaccine. Thimerosal (mercury derivative) 1:10,000 is added as a preservative to AvP DTP vaccine. (Refer to product insert for AvP whole-cell DTP.)

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is combined with Tripedia® (TriHIBitTM) by reconstitution for booster dose, each single dose (0.5 mL) is formulated to contain 10 µg of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to 24 µg of inactivated tetanus toxoid, 8.5% of sucrose, 6.7 Lf of diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf of tetanus toxoid and 46.8 µg of pertussis antigens. Thimerosal (mercury derivative) 1:10,000 is added as a preservative to Tripedia®. (Refer to product insert for Tripedia®.)

The reconstituted vaccine, using saline diluent, appears clear and colorless. The reconstituted vaccine, using AvP DTP vaccine, appears whitish in color. TriHIBitTM, the reconstituted vaccine, using Tripedia® is a homogenous white suspension.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

ActHIB®
Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine
(Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate)

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Caution: Federal (USA) law prohibits dispensing without prescription.

NOTE: Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) - ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is identical to Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) - OmniHIB® (distributed by SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals); and is manufactured by Pasteur Mérieux Sérums Vaccins S.A.

ActHIB®, Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate), produced by Aventis Pasteur SA, is a sterile, lyophilized powder which is reconstituted at the time of use with either saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride) or Aventis Pasteur Inc. (AvP) Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (whole-cell pertussis vaccine D.P. or Tripedia®, AvP Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed (DTaP) (when reconstituted known as TriHIBitTM) for intramuscular use only. The vaccine consists of the Haemophilus b capsular polysaccharide (polyribosyl- ribitol- phosphate, PRP), a high molecular weight polymer prepared from the Haemophilus influenzae type b strain 1482 grown in a semi-synthetic medium, covalently bound to tetanus toxoid.1 The lyophilized ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® powder and saline diluent contain no preservative. The tetanus toxoid is prepared by extraction, ammonium sulfate purification, and formalin inactivation of the toxin from cultures of Clostridium tetani (Harvard strain) grown in a modified Mueller and Miller medium.2 The toxoid is filter sterilized prior to the conjugation process. Potency of ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is specified on each lot by limits on the content of PRP polysaccharide and protein in each dose and the proportion of polysaccharide and protein in the vaccine which is characterized as high molecular weight conjugate.

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is reconstituted with saline diluent, each single dose of 0.5 mL is formulated to contain 10 µg of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to 24 µg of inactivated tetanus toxoid, and 8.5% of sucrose.

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is combined with AvP DTP vaccine by reconstitution, each single dose (0.5 mL) is formulated to contain 10 µg of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to 24 µg of inactivated tetanus toxoid 8.5% of sucrose 6.7 Lf of diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf of tetanus toxoid, and an estimate of 4 protective units of pertussis vaccine. Thimerosal (mercury derivative) 1:10,000 is added as a preservative to AvP DTP vaccine. (Refer to product insert for AvP whole-cell DTP.)

When ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) ® is combined with Tripedia® (TriHIBitTM) by reconstitution for booster dose, each single dose (0.5 mL) is formulated to contain 10 µg of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to 24 µg of inactivated tetanus toxoid, 8.5% of sucrose, 6.7 Lf of diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf of tetanus toxoid and 46.8 µg of pertussis antigens. Thimerosal (mercury derivative) 1:10,000 is added as a preservative to Tripedia®. (Refer to product insert for Tripedia®.)

The reconstituted vaccine, using saline diluent, appears clear and colorless. The reconstituted vaccine, using AvP DTP vaccine, appears whitish in color. TriHIBitTM, the reconstituted vaccine, using Tripedia® is a homogenous white suspension.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

ActHIB Patient Information Including Side Effects

Brand Names: Acthib, Hiberix

Generic Name: haemophilus b conjugate (PRP-T) vaccine (Pronunciation: hem OFF il us B KON ju gate)

What is haemophilus B conjugate (PRP-T) vaccine (ActHIB)?

Haemophilus B is a type of influenza (flu) caused by bacteria.

Haemophilus B bacteria can infect the lungs or throat, and can also spread to the blood, bones, joints, brain, or spinal cord. It can cause breathing problems or meningitis, and these infections can be fatal.

Haemophilus B disease can spread from one person to another through small droplets of saliva that are expelled into the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The bacteria can also be passed through contact with objects the infected person has touched, such as a door handle, or other surface. The bacteria can also be passed through kissing, or sharing a drinking glass or eating utensil with an infected person.

Haemophilus B conjugate vaccine is used to prevent infection caused by haemophilus B bacteria, and is sometimes combined with vaccines to protect against other diseases. Haemophilus B vaccine will not protect against other types of influenza.

Haemophilus B conjugate vaccine works by exposing your child to a small dose of the bacteria or a protein from the bacteria, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease. This vaccine will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body.

Haemophilus B conjugate vaccine is for use in children between the ages of 2 months and 4 years old.

Like any vaccine, haemophilus B conjugate vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person.

What are the possible side effects of this vaccine (ActHIB)?

Keep track of any and all side effects your child has after receiving this vaccine. When the child receives another haemophilus B vaccine in the future, you will need to tell the child's doctor if the first shot caused any side effects.

Becoming infected with haemophilus B is much more dangerous to your child's health than receiving the vaccine to protect against it. Like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects, but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.

Get emergency medical help if your child has any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if your child has any of these serious side effects:

  • extreme drowsiness, fainting;
  • fussiness, irritability, crying for an hour or longer;
  • seizure (black-out or convulsions); or
  • high fever (within a few hours or a few days after the vaccine).

Less serious side effects may include:

  • redness, pain, swelling, or a lump where the shot was given;
  • low fever;
  • mild fussiness or crying;
  • joint pain, body aches;
  • drowsiness; or
  • diarrhea.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1-800-822-7967.

Read the ActHIB (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

What is the most important information I should know about this vaccine (ActHIB)?

The haemophilus B conjugate vaccine is given in a series of shots. In most cases, this vaccine is given as 2 separate shots, 2 months apart. A booster dose is then given 2 months after the last shot, or no later than 18 months of age.

Your child's individual booster schedule may be different from these guidelines. Follow your doctor's instructions or the schedule recommended by the health department of the state you live in.

Be sure your child receives all recommended doses of this vaccine. If your child does not receive the full series of vaccines, he or she may not be fully protected against the disease.

Your child can still receive a vaccine if he or she has a cold or fever. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until the child gets better before receiving this vaccine.

Your child should not receive a booster vaccine if he or she had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.

Keep track of any and all side effects your child has after receiving this vaccine. When the child receives a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shots caused any side effects.

Becoming infected with haemophilus B is much more dangerous to your child's health than receiving the vaccine to protect against it. Like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects, but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.

Side Effects Centers

ActHIB Patient Information including How Should I Take

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before receiving this vaccine (ActHIB)?

Your child should not receive this vaccine if he or she has ever had an allergic reaction to a haemophilus B or a tetanus vaccine, or if the child has received cancer chemotherapy or radiation treatment in the past 3 months.

Before receiving haemophilus B conjugate vaccine, tell your child's doctor if the child is allergic to any drugs, or has:

  • a bleeding or blood clotting disorder such as hemophilia or easy bruising;
  • a history of seizures;
  • a neurologic disorder or disease affecting the brain (or if this was a reaction to a previous vaccine);
  • an allergy to latex rubber;
  • a weak immune system caused by disease, bone marrow transplant, or by using certain medicines or receiving cancer treatments; or
  • if the child is taking a blood thinner such as warfarin (Coumadin).

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether this vaccine is harmful to an unborn baby. Before you receive the vaccine, tell your doctor if you are pregnant.

Haemophilus B conjugate vaccine should not be given to a woman who is breast-feeding a baby.

How is this vaccine given (ActHIB)?

This vaccine is given as an injection (shot) into a muscle. Your child will receive this injection in a doctor's office or other clinic setting.

Haemophilus B conjugate vaccine is given to children between the ages of 2 months and 18 months old. It may also be given to an older child with a medical conditions such as HIV or AIDS, sickle cell disease, or who is receiving cancer treatments or a bone marrow transfusion.

The haemophilus B conjugate vaccine is given in a series of shots. In most cases, this vaccine is given as 2 separate shots, 2 months apart. A booster dose is then given 2 months after the last shot, or no later than 4 years of age.

Your child's individual booster schedule may be different from these guidelines. Follow your doctor's instructions or the schedule recommended by the health department of the state you live in.

Your child can still receive a vaccine if he or she has a cold or fever. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until the child gets better before receiving this vaccine.

Your doctor may recommend treating fever and pain with an aspirin-free pain reliever such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, and others) when the shot is given and for the next 24 hours. Follow the label directions or your doctor's instructions about how much of this medicine to give your child.

It is especially important to prevent fever from occurring in a child who has a seizure disorder such as epilepsy.

Side Effects Centers

ActHIB Patient Information including If I Miss a Dose

What happens if I miss a dose (ActHIB)?

Contact your doctor if you will miss a booster dose or if you get behind schedule. The next dose should be given as soon as possible. There is no need to start over.

Be sure your child receives all recommended doses of this vaccine. If your child does not receive the full series of vaccines, he or she may not be fully protected against the disease.

What happens if I overdose (ActHIB)?

An overdose of this vaccine is not likely to occur.

What should I avoid before or after receiving this vaccine (ActHIB)?

Follow your doctor's instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity.

What other drugs will affect haemophilus B conjugate (PRP-T) vaccine (ActHIB)?

Before receiving this vaccine, tell the doctor about all other vaccines your child has recently received.

Also tell the doctor if your child has recently received drugs or treatments that can weaken the immune system, including:

  • an oral, nasal, inhaled, or injectable steroid medicine;
  • medications to treat psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other autoimmune disorders, such as azathioprine (Imuran), efalizumab (Raptiva), etanercept (Enbrel), leflunomide (Arava), and others; or
  • medicines to treat or prevent organ transplant rejection, such as basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Sandimmune, Neoral, Gengraf), muromonab-CD3 (Orthoclone), mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept), sirolimus (Rapamune), or tacrolimus (Prograf).

This list is not complete and there may be other drugs that can interact with haemophilus B conjugate vaccine. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications your child uses. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without telling your child's doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your doctor or pharmacist may have information about haemophilus B conjugate vaccine written for health professionals that you may read. You may also find additional information from your local health department or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 1.07. Revision date: 12/15/2010.

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Side Effects Centers

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