Mycamine (Micafungin Sodium)
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Mycamine (Micafungin Sodium)

MYCAMINE
(micafungin sodium) For Injection; IV Infusion Only

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Mycamine is a sterile, lyophilized product for intravenous (IV) infusion that contains micafungin sodium. Micafungin sodium is a semisynthetic lipopeptide (echinocandin) synthesized by a chemical modification of a fermentation product of Coleophoma empetri F-l 1899. Micafungin inhibits the synthesis of 1, 3-β-D-glucan, an integral component of the fungal cell wall.

Each single-use vial contains 50 mg or 100 mg micafungin sodium, 200 mg lactose, with citric acid and/or sodium hydroxide (used for pH adjustment). Mycamine must be diluted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Following reconstitution with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, the resulting pH of the solution is between 5-7.

Micafungin sodium is chemically designated as:

Pneumocandin A0, 1 -[(4R,5R)-4,5-dihydroxy-N2-[4-[5-[4-(pentyloxy) phenyl]-3- isoxazolyl] benzoyl]-L-ornithine]-4-[(45)-4-hydroxy-4-[4-hydroxy-3-(sulfooxy) phenyl]-L- threonine]-, monosodium salt.

The chemical structure of micafungin sodium is:

MYCAMEVE (micafungin sodium) Formula Illustration

The empirical/molecular formula is C56H70N9NaO23S and the formula weight is 1292.26.

Micafungin sodium is a light-sensitive, hygroscopic white powder that is freely soluble in water, isotonic sodium chloride solution, N,N-dimethylformamide and dimethylsulfoxide, slightly soluble in methyl alcohol, and practically insoluble in acetonitrile, ethyl alcohol (95%), acetone, diethyl ether and n-hexane.

What are the possible side effects of micafungin (Mycamine)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; feeling like you might pass out; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • pale skin, dark colored urine, confusion or weakness;
  • upper stomach pain, itching, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms;
  • easy bruising, unusual bleeding (nose, mouth, vagina, or rectum), purple or red pinpoint spots under...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Mycamine »

What are the precautions when taking micafungin sodium (Mycamine)?

Before using micafungin, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver disease, kidney disease, blood disorders (e.g., anemia, decreased bone marrow function).

This medication should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is not known whether this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before...

Read All Potential Precautions of Mycamine »

Last reviewed on RxList: 7/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

INDICATIONS

Mycamine® is indicated for:

Treatment of Patients with Candidemia, Acute Disseminated Candidiasis, Candida Peritonitis and Abscesses

[see Clinical Studies].

Mycamine has not been adequately studied in patients with endocarditis, osteomyelitis and meningitis due to Candida infections.

Treatment of Patients with Esophageal Candidiasis

[see Clinical Studies].

Prophylaxis of Candida Infections in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

[see Clinical Studies].

NOTE: The efficacy of Mycamine against infections caused by fungi other than Candida has not been established.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Do not mix or co-infuse Mycamine with other medications. Mycamine has been shown to precipitate when mixed directly with a number of other commonly used medications.

Table 1. Mycamine Dosage

Indication Recommended Reconstituted Dose
Once Daily
Treatment of Candidemia, Acute Disseminated Candidiasis, Candida Peritonitis and Abscesses* 100 mg
Treatment of Esophageal Candidiasis 150 mg
Prophylaxis of Candida Infections in HSCT Recipients 50 mg
* In patients treated successfully for candidemia and other Candida infections, the mean duration of treatment was 15 days (range 10-47 days).
In patients treated successfully for esophageal Candidiasis, the mean duration of treatment was 15 days (range 10-30 days).
In hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients who experienced success of prophylactic therapy, the mean duration of prophylaxis was 19 days (range 6-51 days).

A loading dose is not required. Typically, 85% of the steady-state concentration is achieved after three daily Mycamine doses.

No dosing adjustments are required based on race, gender, or in patients with severe renal impairment or in patients with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment, [see Use In Specific Populations].

No dose adjustment for Mycamine is required with concomitant use of mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, prednisolone, sirolimus, nifedipine, fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, ritonavir, or rifampin. [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Directions for Reconstitution and Dilution

Please read this entire section carefully before beginning reconstitution.

The diluent to be used for reconstitution and dilution is 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (without a bacteriostatic agent). Alternatively, 5% Dextrose Injection, USP, may be used for reconstitution and dilution of Mycamine. Solutions for infusion are prepared as follows:

Reconstitution

Mycamine 50 mg vial

Aseptically add 5 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (without a bacteriostatic agent) to each 50 mg vial to yield a preparation containing approximately 10 mg micafungin/mL.

Mycamine 100 mg vial

Aseptically add 5 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (without a bacteriostatic agent) to each 100 mg vial to yield a preparation containing approximately 20 mg micafungin/mL.

As with all parenteral drug products, reconstituted Mycamine should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not use material if there is any evidence of precipitation or foreign matter. Aseptic technique must be strictly observed in all handling since no preservative or bacteriostatic agent is present in Mycamine or in the materials specified for reconstitution and dilution.

Dissolution

To minimize excessive foaming, GENTLY dissolve the Mycamine powder by swirling the vial. DO NOT VIGOROUSLY SHAKE THE VIAL. Visually inspect the vial for particulate matter.

Dilution

The diluted solution should be protected from light. It is not necessary to cover the infusion drip chamber or the tubing.

  • For treatment of candidemia. acute disseminated candidiasis, Candida peritonitis and abscesses: add 100 mg of reconstituted Mycamine into 100 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP or 100 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP.
  • For treatment of esophageal candidiasis: add 150 mg of reconstituted Mycamine into 100 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP or 100 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP.
  • For prophylaxis of Candida infections: add 50 mg of reconstituted Mycamine into 100 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP or 100 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP.

Mycamine is preservative-free. Discard partially used vials.

Infusion Volume and Duration

Mycamine should be administered by intravenous infusion only. Infuse over one hour. More rapid infusions may result in more frequent histamine mediated reactions.

An existing intravenous line should be flushed with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, prior to infusion of Mycamine.

HOW SUPPLIED

Dosage Forms and Strengths

50 mg and 100 mg single-use vials

Mycamine is available in:

  • cartons of 10 individually packaged 50 mg single-use vials, coated with a light protective film and sealed with a blue flip-off cap. (NDC 0469-3250-10).
  • cartons of 10 individually packaged 100 mg single-use vials, coated with a light protective film and sealed with a red flip-off cap. (NDC 0469-3211-10)

Storage

Unopened vials of lyophilized material must be stored at room temperature, 25° C (77° F);

excursions permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F). [see USP Controlled Room Temperature.]

The reconstituted product may be stored in the original vial for up to 24 hours at room temperature, 25° C (77° F).

The diluted infusion should be protected from light and may be stored for up to 24 hours at room temperature, 25° C (77° F).

Made in Japan Marketed by: Astellas Pharma US, Inc. Deerfield, IL 60015-2548. Revised: June 2011

Last reviewed on RxList: 7/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

SIDE EFFECTS

General

Possible histamine-mediated symptoms have been reported with Mycamine, including rash, pruritus, facial swelling, and vasodilatation.

Injection site reactions, including phlebitis and thrombophlebitis have been reported, at Mycamine doses of 50-150 mg/day. These reactions tended to occur more often in patients receiving Mycamine via peripheral intravenous administration.

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of Mycamine cannot be directly compared to rates in clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does provide a basis for identifying adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates.

Candidemia and Other Candida Infections

In a randomized, double-blind study for treatment of candidemia and other Candida infections, treatment emergent adverse events occurred in 183/200 (91.5%), 187/202 (92.6%) and 171/193 (88.6%) patients in the Mycamine 100 mg/day, Mycamine 150mg/day, and caspofungin (70/50mg/day) treatment groups, respectively. Treatment emergent adverse events occurring in ≥ 5% of the patients in any treatment study groups are shown in Table 2.

Table 2. *Treatment Emergent Adverse Events in Patients with Candidemia and Other Candida Infections

MedDRA v 5.0 System Organ Class
Preferred Term
Micafungin 100 mg
(n = 200)
Micafungin 150 mg
(n = 202)
Caspofungin
(n = 193)
All Systems, Any Adverse Event 183 (91.5) 187 (92.6) 171 (88.6)
Gastrointestinal Disorders 81 (40.5) 89 (44.1) 76 (39.4)
  Diarrhea NOS 15 (7.5) 26 (12.9) 14 (7.3)
  Nausea 19 (9.5) 15 (7.4) 20 (10.4)
  Vomiting NOS 18 (9) 15 (7.4) 16 (8.3)
  Abdominal Pain NOS 5 (2.5) 4 (2) 10 (5.2)
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders 77 (38.5) 83 (41.1) 73 (37.8)
  Hypokalemia 28 (14) 34 (16.8) 28 (14.5)
  Hypomagnesaemia 11 (5.5) 17 (8.4) 14 (7.3)
  Hypoglycemia NOS 12 (6) 14 (6.9) 9 (4.7)
  Hypernatremia 8 (4) 13 (6.4) 8 (4.1)
  Hyperkalemia 10 (5) 8 (4) 5 (2.6)
Infections and Infestations 67 (33.5) 81 (40.1) 59 (30.6)
  Bacteremia 10 (5) 18 (8.9) 11 (5.7)
  Septic Shock 15 (7.5) 9 (4.5) 9 (4.7)
  Sepsis NOS 11 (5.5) 10 (5) 11 (5.7)
  Pneumonia NOS 3 (1.5) 11 (5.4) 4 (2.1)
General Disorders/Administration Site Conditions 59 (29.5) 56 (27.7) 51 (26.4)
  Pyrexia 14 (7) 22 (10.9) 15 (7.8)
  Edema Peripheral 11 (5.5) 12 (5.9) 14 (7.3)
Vascular Disorders 43 (21.5) 47 (23.3) 36 (18.7)
  Hypotension NOS 20 (10) 12 (5.9) 15 (7.8)
  Hypertension NOS 6 (3) 10 (5) 12 (6.2)
Investigations 36(18) 49 (24.3) 37 (19.2)
  Blood Alkaline Phosphatase NOS Increased 11 (5.5) 16 (7.9) 8 (4.1)
Blood/Lymphatic System Disorders 38 (19) 45 (22.3) 37 (19.2)
  Thrombocytopenia 8 (4) 8 (4) 11 (5.7)
  Anemia NOS 5 (2.5) 6 (3) 13 (6.7)
  Anemia NOS Aggravated 4 (2) 10 (5) 5 (2.6)
Cardiac Disorders 35 (17.5) 48 (23.8) 36 (18.7%)
  Tachycardia NOS 6 (3) 7 (3.5) 13 (6.7%)
  BradycardiaNOS 5 (2.5) 10 (5) 8 (4.1%)
  Atrial Fibrillation 5 (2.5) 10 (5) 0
Nervous System Disorders 21 (10.5) 42 (20.8) 32 (16.6)
  Headache NOS 4 (2) 10 (5) 11 (5.7)
Skin/Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders 26 (13) 34 (16.8) 33 (17.1)
  Decubitus Ulcer 9 (4.5) 12 (5.9) 9 (4.7)
Psychiatric Disorders 31 (15.5) 27 (13.4) 33 (17.1)
  Insomnia 11 (5.5) 8 (4) 16 (8.3)
Patient base: all randomized patients who received at least 1 dose of trial drug
Common: ≥ 5% in any treatment arm.
* During IV treatment + 3 days
Within a system organ class patients may experience more than 1 adverse event.
70 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 50 mg/day thereafter (caspofungin)

In a second, supportive, randomized, double-blind study for treatment of candidemia and other Candida infections, treatment emergent adverse events occurred in 245/264 (92.8%) and 250/265 (94.3%) patients in the Mycamine (100 mg/day) and AmBisome (3 mg/kg/day) treatment groups, respectively. The most common treatment emergent adverse events occurring in ≥ 5% of the Mycamine-treated patients at least 16 years of age were: pyrexia (15.2% vs. 17%); hypokalemia (16.7% vs. 20.8%); nausea (9.5% vs. 8.3%); diarrhea (10.6% vs. 11.3%) and vomiting (12.9% vs. 9.4%), in the Mycamine and AmBisome treatment groups, respectively. Other important treatment emergent adverse events that occurred at < 5% frequency were abnormal liver function tests (4.2% vs. 3%); increased aspartate aminotransferase (2.7% vs. 1.9%), and increased blood alkaline phosphatase (3% vs. 2.3%), in the Mycamine and AmBisome treatment groups, respectively.

Esophageal Candidiasis

In a randomized, double-blind study for treatment of esophageal candidiasis, a total of 202/260 (77.7%) patients who received Mycamine 150 mg/day and 186/258 (72.1%) patients who received intravenous fluconazole 200 mg/day experienced an adverse event. Treatment emergent adverse events resulting in discontinuation were reported in 17 (6.5%) Mycamine treated patients; and in 12 (4.7%) fluconazole treated patients. Treatment emergent adverse events occurring in ≥ 5% of the patients in either treatment group are shown in Table 3.

Table 3. *Treatment Emergent Adverse Events in Patients with Esophageal Candidiasis

Adverse Events
(MedDRA System Organ Class and Preferred Term)
Mycamine
150 mg/day
n (%)
Fluconazole
200 mg/day
n (%)
Number of Patients 260 258
All Systems, Any Adverse Event 202 (77.7) 186 (72.1)
Gastrointestinal Disorders 84 (32.3) 93 (36)
  Diarrhea NOS 27 (10.4) 29 (11.2)
  Nausea 20 (7.7) 23 (8.9)
  Vomiting NOS 17 (6.5) 17 (6.6)
  Abdominal Pain NOS 10 (3.8) 15 (5.8)
General Disorders/Administration Site Conditions 52 (20) 45 (17.4)
  Pyrexia 34 (13.1) 21 (8.1)
Nervous System Disorders 42 (16.2) 40 (15.5)
  Headache NOS 22 (8.5) 20 (7.8)
Blood/Lymphatic System Disorders 38 (14.6) 43 (16.7)
  Anemia NOS 8 (3.1) 16 (6.2)
Vascular Disorders 54 (20.8) 21 (8.1)
  Phlebitis NOS 49 (18.8) 13 (5)
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders 36 (13.8) 26 (10.1)
  Rash NOS 14 (5.4) 6 (2.3)
Psychiatric Disorders 20 (7.7) 21 (8.1)
  Insomnia 9 (3.5) 13 (5)
Patient base: all randomized patients who received at least 1 dose of trial drug
Common: ≥ 5% in either treatment arm.
* During treatment + 3 days.
Within a system organ class patients may experience more than 1 adverse event.

Prophylaxis of Candida Infections in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

A double-blind study was conducted in a total of 882 patients scheduled to undergo an autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The median duration of treatment was 18 days (range 1 to 51 days) in both treatment arms.

All patients who received Mycamine (425) and all patients who received fluconazole (457) experienced at least one adverse event during the study. Treatment emergent adverse events resulting in Mycamine discontinuation were reported in 18 (4.2%) patients; while those resulting in fluconazole discontinuation were reported in 33 (7.2%). Treatment emergent adverse events occurring in ≥ 15% of the patients in either treatment group are shown in Table 4.

Table 4. *Treatment Emergent Adverse Events During Prophylaxis of Candida Infection in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

Adverse Events
(MedDRA System Organ Class and Preferred Term)
Mycamine
50 mg/day
n (%)
Fluconazole
400 mg/day
n (%)
Number of Patients 425 457
All Systems, Any Adverse Events 425 (100) 457 (100)
Gastrointestinal Disorders 421 (99.1) 449 (98.2)
  Diarrhea NOS 302 (71.1) 348 (76.1)
  Nausea 296 (69.6) 309 (67.6)
  Vomiting NOS 281 (66.1) 307 (67.2)
  Constipation 129 (30.4) 143 (31.3)
  Dyspepsia 104 (24.5) 122 (26.7)
  Abdominal Pain NOS 115 (27.1) 107 (23.4)
General Disorders/Administration Site Conditions 410 (96.5) 440 (96.3)
  Mucosal Inflammation NOS 322 (75.8) 360 (78.8)
  Pyrexia 191 (44.9) 218 (47.7)
  Fatigue 126 (29.6) 145 (31.7)
  Rigors 112 (26.4) 118 (25.8)
  Edema Peripheral 88 (20.7) 100 (21.9)
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders 408 (96) 429 (93.9)
  Neutropenia 320 (75.3) 327 (71.6)
  Thrombocytopenia 307 (72.2) 304 (66.5)
  Anemia NOS 151 (35.5) 173 (37.9)
  Febrile Neutropenia 155 (36.5) 166 (36.3)
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders 385 (90.6) 428 (93.7)
  Hypomagnesaemia 214 (50.4) 256 (56)
  Hypokalemia 209 (49.2) 232 (50.8)
  Anorexia 116 (27.3) 121 (26.5)
  Appetite Decreased NOS 87 (20.5) 93 (20.4)
  Fluid Overload 74 (17.4) 96 (21)
  Hyperglycemia NOS 68 (16) 92 (20.1)
  Hypocalcemia 72 (16.9) 82 (17.9)
  Fluid Retention 69 (16.2) 66 (14.4)
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders 291 (68.5) 336 (73.5)
  Cough 98 (23.1) 112 (24.5)
  Epistaxis 49 (11.5) 84 (18.4)
  Dyspnea NOS 54 (12.7) 64 (14)
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders 290 (68.2) 316 (69.1)
  Rash NOS 110 (25.9) 102 (22.3)
  Pruritus NOS 75 (17.6) 87 (19.)
  Erythema 48 (11.3) 71 (15.5)
Nervous System Disorders 261 (61.4) 268 (58.6)
  Headache NOS 179 (42.1) 165 (36.1)
  Dizziness 55 (12.9) 83 (18.2)
Psychiatric Disorders 257 (60.5) 249 (54.5)
  Insomnia 152 (35.8) 146 (31.9)
  Anxiety 95 (22.4) 92 (20.1)
Vascular Disorders 224 (52.7) 267 (58.4)
  Hypertension NOS 91 (21.4) 113 (24.7)
  Hypotension NOS 79 (18.6) 89 (19.5)
  Flushing 47 (11.1) 70 (15.3)
Infections and Infestations 178 (41.9) 208 (45.5)
  Bacteremia 66 (15.5) 86 (18.8)
Cardiac Disorders 147 (34.6) 162 (35.4)
  Tachycardia NOS 105 (24.7) 102 (22.3)
Patient base: all randomized patients who received at least 1 dose of trial drug Common: ≥ 15% in either treatment arm.
* During treatment + 3 days
Within a system organ class patients may experience more than 1 adverse event.

Overall Mycamine Safety Experience in Clinical Trials

The overall safety of Mycamine was assessed in 3083 patients and 501 volunteers in 41 clinical studies, including the invasive candidiasis, esophageal candidiasis and prophylaxis studies, who received single or multiple doses of Mycamine, ranging from 12.5 mg to ≥ 150 mg/day. Treatment emergent adverse events which occurred in ≥ 5% of all patients who received Mycamine in these trials are shown in Table 5.

Overall, 2810 of 3083 (91.1%) patients who received Mycamine experienced an adverse event.

Clinically significant adverse events regardless of causality or incidence which occurred in these trials are listed below:

Table 5. *Treatment Emergent Adverse Events in Patients Who Received Mycamine in Clinical Trials

Adverse Events
(MedDRA System Organ Class and Preferred Term)
Mycamine
n (%)
Number of Patients 3083
AD Systems, Any Adverse Event 2810 (91.1)
Gastrointestinal Disorders 1764 (57.2)
  Diarrhea NOS 718 (23.3)
  Nausea 679 (22)
  Vomiting NOS 669 (21.7)
  Constipation 341 (11.1)
  Abdominal Pain 300 (9.7)
  Dyspepsia 176 (5.7)
General Disorders/Administration Site Conditions 1407 (45.6)
  Pyrexia 618 (20)
  Mucosal Inflammation NOS 438 (14.2)
  Rigors 281 (9.1)
  Edema Peripheral 209 (6.8)
  Fatigue 198 (6.4)
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders 1316 (42.7)
  Hypokalemia 556 (18)
  Hypomagnesemia 409 (13.3)
  Hypocalcemia 201 (6.5)
  Anorexia 190 (6.2)
  Hyperglycemia NOS 173 (5.6)
  Fluid Overload 155 (5)
Infections and Infestations 1227 (39.8)
  Bacteremia 185 (6)
  Sepsis NOS 156 (5.1)
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders 1108 (35.9)
  Cough 251 (8.1)
  Dyspnea NOS 182 (5.9)
  Epistaxis 172 (5.6)
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders 1047 (34)
  Thrombocytopenia 474 (15.4)
  Neutropenia 436 (14.1)
  Anemia NOS 302 (9.8)
  Febrile Neutropenia 187 (6.1)
Investigations 989 (32.1)
  Aspartate Aminotransferase Increased 172 (5.6)
  Blood Alkaline Phosphatase NOS Increased 168 (5.4)
  Alanine Aminotransferase Increased 165 (5.4)
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders 940 (30.5)
  Rash NOS 269 (8.7)
  Pruritus NOS 187 (6.1)
Nervous System Disorders 889 (28.8)
  Headache NOS 489 (15.9)
Psychiatric Disorders 727 (23.6)
  Insomnia 303 (9.8)
  Anxiety 198 (6.4)
Vascular Disorders 867 (28.1)
  Hypotension NOS 279 (9.1)
  Hypertension NOS 214 (6.9)
  Phlebitis NOS 172 (5.6)
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders 579 (18.8)
  Back Pain 166 (5.4)
Cardiac Disorders 563 (18.3)
  Tachycardia NOS 231 (7.5)
Patient base: all randomized patients who received at least 1 dose of trial drug
Common: Incidence of adverse event ≥ 5%.
* During treatment + 3 days
Within a system organ class patients may experience more than 1 adverse event

Postmarketing Adverse Reactions

The following adverse reactions have been identified during the post-approval use of micafungin sodium for injection. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency. A causal relationship to micafungin sodium for injection could not be excluded for these adverse reactions, which included:

Read the Mycamine (micafungin sodium) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

DRUG INTERACTIONS

A total of 14 clinical drug-drug interaction studies were conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the potential for interaction between Mycamine and amphotericin B, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, prednisolone, sirolimus, nifedipine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, ritonavir, and rifampin. In these studies, no interaction that altered the pharmacokinetics of micafungin was observed.

There was no effect of a single dose or multiple doses of Mycamine on mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, prednisolone, fluconazole, and voriconazole pharmacokinetics.

Sirolimus AUC was increased by 21% with no effect on Cmax in the presence of steady-state Mycamine compared with sirolimus alone. Nifedipine AUC and Cmax were increased by 18% and 42%, respectively, in the presence of steady-state Mycamine compared with nifedipine alone. Itraconazole AUC and Cmax were increased by 22% and 11%, respectively.

Patients receiving sirolimus, nifedipine or itraconazole in combination with Mycamine should be monitored for sirolimus, nifedipine or itraconazole toxicity and the sirolimus, nifedipine or itraconazole dosage should be reduced if necessary [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Micafungin is neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and, therefore, would not be expected to alter P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport activity.

Drug Abuse And Dependence

There has been no evidence of either psychological or physical dependence or withdrawal or rebound effects with Mycamine.

Last reviewed on RxList: 7/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

WARNINGS

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

PRECAUTIONS

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Isolated cases of serious hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid) reactions (including shock) have been reported in patients receiving Mycamine. If these reactions occur, Mycamine infusion should be discontinued and appropriate treatment administered.

Hematological Effects

Acute intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobinuria was seen in a healthy volunteer during infusion of Mycamine (200 mg) and oral prednisolone (20 mg). This reaction was transient, and the subject did not develop significant anemia. Isolated cases of significant hemolysis and hemolytic anemia have also been reported in patients treated with Mycamine. Patients who develop clinical or laboratory evidence of hemolysis or hemolytic anemia during Mycamine therapy should be monitored closely for evidence of worsening of these conditions and evaluated for the risk/benefit of continuing Mycamine therapy.

Hepatic Effects

Laboratory abnormalities in liver function tests have been seen in healthy volunteers and patients treated with Mycamine. In some patients with serious underlying conditions who were receiving Mycamine along with multiple concomitant medications, clinical hepatic abnormalities have occurred, and isolated cases of significant hepatic impairment, hepatitis, and hepatic failure have been reported. Patients who develop abnormal liver function tests during Mycamine therapy should be monitored for evidence of worsening hepatic function and evaluated for the risk/benefit of continuing Mycamine therapy.

Renal Effects

Elevations in BUN and creatinine, and isolated cases of significant renal impairment or acute renal failure have been reported in patients who received Mycamine. In fluconazole-controlled trials, the incidence of drug-related renal adverse events was 0.4% for Mycamine treated patients and 0.5% for fluconazole treated patients. Patients who develop abnormal renal function tests during Mycamine therapy should be monitored for evidence of worsening renal function.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Hepatic carcinomas and adenomas were observed in a 6-month intravenous toxicology study with an 18-month recovery period of micafungin sodium in rats designed to assess the reversibility of hepatocellular lesions.

Rats administered micafungin sodium for 3 months at 32 mg/kg/day (corresponding to 8 times the highest recommended human dose [150 mg/day], based on AUC comparisons), exhibited colored patches/zones, multinucleated hepatocytes and altered hepatocellular foci after 1 or 3 month recovery periods, and adenomas were observed after a 21-month recovery period. Rats administered micafungin sodium at the same dose for 6 months exhibited adenomas after a 12-month recovery period; after an 18-month recovery period, an increased incidence of adenomas was observed, and additionally, carcinomas were detected. A lower dose of micafungin sodium (equivalent to 5 times the human AUC) in the 6-month rat study resulted in a lower incidence of adenomas and carcinomas following 18 months recovery. The duration of micafungin dosing in these rat studies (3 or 6 months) exceeds the usual duration of Mycamine dosing in patients, which is typically less than 1 month for treatment of esophageal candidiasis, but dosing may exceed 1 month for Candida prophylaxis.

Although the increase in carcinomas in the 6-month rat study did not reach statistical significance, the persistence of altered hepatocellular foci subsequent to micafungin dosing, and the presence of adenomas and carcinomas in the recovery periods suggest a causal relationship between micafungin sodium, altered hepatocellular foci, and hepatic neoplasms. Whole-life carcinogenicity studies of Mycamine in animals have not been conducted, and it is not known whether the hepatic neoplasms observed in treated rats also occur in other species, or if there is a dose threshold for this effect.

Micafungin sodium was not mutagenic or clastogenic when evaluated in a standard battery of in vitro and in vivo tests (i.e., bacterial reversion - S. typhimurium, E. coli; chromosomal aberration; intravenous mouse micronucleus).

Male rats treated intravenously with micafungin sodium for 9 weeks showed vacuolation of the epididymal ductal epithelial cells at or above 10 mg/kg (about 0.6 times the recommended clinical dose for esophageal candidiasis, based on body surface area comparisons). Higher doses (about twice the recommended clinical dose, based on body surface area comparisons) resulted in higher epididymis weights and reduced numbers of sperm cells. In a 39-week intravenous study in dogs, seminiferous tubular atrophy and decreased sperm in the epididymis were observed at 10 and 32 mg/kg, doses equal to about 2 and 7 times the recommended clinical dose, based on body surface area comparisons. There was no impairment of fertility in animal studies with micafungin sodium.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of micafungin in pregnant women. Animal reproduction studies in rabbits showed visceral abnormalities and increased abortion at 4 times the recommended human dose. However, animal studies are not always predictive of human response. Micafungin should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

When pregnant rabbits were given 4 times the recommended human dose, there were increased abortion and visceral abnormalities including abnormal lobation of the lung, levocardia, retrocaval ureter, anomalous right subclavian artery, and dilatation of the ureter [see Nonclinical Toxicology].

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether micafungin is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when Mycamine is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

A total of 418 subjects in clinical studies of Mycamine were 65 years of age and older, and 124 subjects were 75 years of age and older. No overall differences in safety and effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

The exposure and disposition of a 50 mg Mycamine dose administered as a single 1-hour infusion to 10 healthy subjects aged 66-78 years were not significantly different from those in 10 healthy subjects aged 20-24 years. No dose adjustment is necessary for the elderly.

Use in Patients with Renal Impairment

Mycamine does not require dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment. Supplementary dosing should not be required following hemodialysis [see Pharmacokinetics].

Use in Patients with Hepatic Impairment

Dose adjustment of Mycamine is not required in patients with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment [see Pharmacokinetics].

Race and Gender

No dose adjustment of Mycamine is required based on gender or race. After 14 daily doses of 150 mg to healthy subjects, micafungin AUC in women was greater by approximately 23% compared with men, due to smaller body weight. No notable differences among white, black, and Hispanic subjects were seen. The micafungin AUC was greater by 19% in Japanese subjects compared to blacks, due to smaller body weight.

Last reviewed on RxList: 7/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OVERDOSE

Mycamine is highly protein bound and, therefore, is not dialyzable. No cases of Mycamine overdosage have been reported. Repeated daily doses up to 8 mg/kg (maximum total dose of 896 mg) in adult patients have been administered in clinical trials with no reported dose-limiting toxicity. The minimum lethal dose of Mycamine is 125 mg/kg in rats, equivalent to 8.1 times the recommended human clinical dose for esophageal candidiasis based on body surface area comparisons.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Mycamine is contraindicated in persons with known hypersensitivity to micafungin, any component of Mycamine, or other echinocandins.

Last reviewed on RxList: 7/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Micafungin is a member of the echinocandin class of antifungal agents [see Microbiology].

Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of micafungin were determined in healthy subjects, hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and patients with esophageal candidiasis up to a maximum daily dose of 8 mg/kg body weight.

The relationship of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to micafungin dose was linear over the daily dose range of 50 mg to 150 mg and 3 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg body weight.

Steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters in relevant patient populations after repeated daily administration are presented in the table below.

Table 6. Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Micafungin in Adult Patients

      Pharmacokinetic Parameters
Population n Dose (mg) (Mean ± Standard Deviation)
Cmax
(mcg/mL)
AUC0-24*
(mcg-h/mL)
t½(h) CI
(mL/min/kg)
Patients with IC [Day 1]
[Steady State]
20 100 5.7 ± 2.2 83 ± 51 14.5 ± 7.0 0.359 ± 0.179
20 100 10.1 ± 4.4 97 ± 29 13.4 ± 2.0 0.298 ± 0.1 15
HTV- Positive Patients with EC§
[Day 1]
20 50 4.1 ± 1.4 36 ± 9 14.9 ± 4.3 0.321 ± 0.098
20 100 8.0 ± 2.4 108 ± 31 13.8 ± 3.0 0.327 ± 0.093
14 150 11.6 ± 3.1 151 ± 45 14.1 ± 2.6 0.340 ± 0.092
[Day 14 or 21] 20 50 5.1 ± 1.0 54 ± 13 15.6 ± 2.8 0.300 ± 0.063
20 100 10.1 ± 2.6 115 ± 25 16.9 ± 4.4 0.301 ± 0.086
14 150 16.4 ± 6.5 167 ± 40 15.2 ± 2.2 0.297 ± 0.081
HSCT   per kg        
Recipients [Day 7] 8 3 21.1 ± 2.84 234 ± 34 14.0 ± 1.4 0.214 ± 0.031
10 4 29.2 ± 6.2 339 ± 72 14.2 ± 3.2 0.204 ± 0.036
8 6 38.4 ± 6.9 479 ± 157 14.9 ± 2.6 0.224 ± 0.064
8 8 60.8 ± 26.9 663 ± 212 17.2 ± 2.3 0.223 ± 0.081
* AUC0-infinity is presented for day 1; AUC0-24 is presented for steady state.
candidemia or other Candida Infections
human immunodeficiency virus
§ esophageal candidiasis
hematopoietic stem cell transplant

Patients with Renal Impairment

Mycamine does not require dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment. A single 1-hour infusion of 100 mg Mycamine was administered to 9 subjects with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) and to 9 age-, gender-, and weight-matched subjects with normal renal function (creatinine clearance > 80 mL/min). The maximum concentration (Cmax) and AUC were not significantly altered by severe renal impairment.

Since micafungin is highly protein bound, it is not dialyzable. Supplementary dosing should not be required following hemodialysis.

Patients with Hepatic Impairment
  • A single 1-hour infusion of 100 mg Mycamine was administered to 8 subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 7-9) and 8 age-, gender-, and weight-matched subjects with normal hepatic function. The Cmax and AUC values of micafungin were lower by approximately 22% in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment compared to normal subjects. This difference in micafungin exposure does not require dose adjustment of Mycamine in patients with moderate hepatic impairment.
  • A single 1-hour infusion of 100 mg Mycamine was administered to 8 subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 10-12) and 8 age-, gender-, ethnic- and weight-matched subjects with normal hepatic function. The mean Cmax and AUC values of micafungin were lower by approximately 30% in subjects with severe hepatic impairment compared to normal subjects. The mean Cmax and AUC values of M-5 metabolite were approximately 2.3-fold higher in subjects with severe hepatic impairment compared to normal subjects; however, this exposure (parent and metabolite) was comparable to that in patients with systemic Candida infection. Therefore, no micafungin dose adjustment is necessary in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Distribution

The mean ± standard deviation volume of distribution of micafungin at terminal phase was 0.39 ± 0.11 L/kg body weight when determined in adult patients with esophageal candidiasis at the dose range of 50 mg to 150 mg.

Micafungin is highly ( > 99%) protein bound in vitro, independent of plasma concentrations over the range of 10 to 100 mcg/mL. The primary binding protein is albumin; however, micafungin, at therapeutically relevant concentrations, does not competitively displace bilirubin binding to albumin. Micafungin also binds to a lesser extent to ctl-acid-glycoprotein.

Metabolism

Micafungin is metabolized to M-l (catechol form) by arylsulfatase, with further metabolism to M-2 (methoxy form) by catechol-O-methyltransferase. M-5 is formed by hydroxylation at the side chain (ϖ-1 position) of micafungin catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes. Even though micafungin is a substrate for and a weak inhibitor of CYP3A in vitro, hydroxylation by CYP3A is not a major pathway for micafungin metabolism in vivo. Micafungin is neither a P-glycoprotein substrate nor inhibitor in vitro.

In four healthy volunteer studies, the ratio of metabolite to parent exposure (AUC) at a dose of 150 mg/day was 6% for M-l, 1% for M-2, and 6% for M-5. In patients with esophageal candidiasis, the ratio of metabolite to parent exposure (AUC) at a dose of 150 mg/day was 11% for M-l, 2% for M-2, and 12% for M-5.

Excretion

The excretion of radioactivity following a single intravenous dose of 14C-micafungin sodium for injection (25 mg) was evaluated in healthy volunteers. At 28 days after administration, mean urinary and fecal recovery of total radioactivity accounted for 82.5% (76.4% to 87.9%) of the administered dose. Fecal excretion is the major route of elimination (total radioactivity at 28 days was 71% of the administered dose).

Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

Micafungin inhibits the synthesis of 1,3-β-D-ghican, an essential component of fungal cell walls, which is not present in mammalian cells.

Activity In Vitro

Micafungin exhibited in vitro activity against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. Standardized susceptibility testing methods for 1,3-β-D-glucan synthesis inhibitors have recently been proposed by the CLSI, however, the correlation between the results of susceptibility studies and clinical outcome has not been established.

Activity In Vivo

Micafungin sodium has shown activity in both mucosal and disseminated murine models of candidiasis. Micafungin sodium, administered to immunosuppressed mice in models of disseminated candidiasis prolonged survival and/or decreased the mycological burden.

Drug Resistance

Mutants of Candida with reduced susceptibility to micafungin have been identified in some patients during treatment suggesting a potential for development of drug resistance. The incidence of drug resistance by various clinical isolates of Candida species is unknown.

Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

High doses of micafungin sodium (5 to 8 times the highest recommended human dose, based on AUC comparisons) have been associated with irreversible changes to the liver when administered for 3 or 6 months, and these changes may be indicative of pre-malignant processes [see Nonclinical Toxicology].

Reproductive Toxicology Studies

Micafungin sodium administration to pregnant rabbits (intravenous dosing on days 6 to 18 of gestation) resulted in visceral abnormalities and abortion at 32 mg/kg, a dose equivalent to about four times the recommended dose based on body surface area comparisons. Visceral abnormalities included abnormal lobation of the lung, levocardia, retrocaval ureter, anomalous right subclavian artery, and dilatation of the ureter.

Clinical Studies

Treatment of Candidemia and Other Candida Infections

Two dose levels of Mycamine were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind study to determine the efficacy and safety versus caspofungin in patients with invasive candidiasis and candidemia. Patients were randomized to receive once daily intravenous infusions (IV) of Mycamine, either 100 mg/day or 150 mg/day or caspofungin (70 mg loading dose followed by 50 mg maintenance dose). Patients in both study arms were permitted to switch to oral fluconazole after at least 10 days of intravenous therapy, provided they were non-neutropenic, had improvement or resolution of clinical signs and symptoms, had a Candida isolate which was susceptible to fluconazole, and had documentation of 2 negative cultures drawn at least 24 hours apart. Patients were stratified by APACHE II score ( ≤ 20 or > 20) and by geographic region. Patients with Candida endocarditis were excluded from this analysis. Outcome was assessed by overall treatment success based on clinical (complete resolution or improvement in attributable signs and symptoms and radiographic abnormalities of the Candida infection and no additional antifungal therapy) and mycological (eradication or presumed eradication) response at the end of IV therapy. Deaths that occurred during IV study drug therapy were treated as failures.

In this study, 111/578 (19.2%) of the patients had baseline APACHE II scores of > 20, and 50/578 (8.7%) were neutropenic at baseline (absolute neutrophil count less than 500 cells/mm3). Outcome, relapse and mortality data are shown for the recommended dose of Mycamine (100 mg/day) and caspofungin in Table 7.

Table 7. Efficacy Analysis: Treatment Success in Patients in Study 03-0-192 with Candidemia and other Candida Infections

  Mycamine 100 mg/day
n (%)
% treatment difference
(95%CI)
Caspofungin 70/50 mg/day*
n (%)
Treatment Success at End of IV Therapy 135/191 (70.7)
7.4
(-2.0, 16.3)
119/188
(63.3)
Success in Patients with Neutropenia at Baseline 14/22 (63.6) 5/11(45.5)
Success by Site of Infection Candidemia 116/163(71.2) 103/161 (64)
Abscess 4/5 (80) 5/9 (55.6)
Acute Disseminated 6/13 (46.2) 5/9 (55.6)
  Endophthalmitis 1/3 1/1
  Chorioretinitis 0/3 0
  Skin 1/1 0
  Kidney 2/2 1/1
  Pancreas 1/1 0
  Peritoneum 1/1 0
  Lung/Skin 0/1 0
  Lung/Spleen 0/1 0
  Liver 0 0/2
  Intraabdominal abscess 0 3/5
Chronic Disseminated 0/1 0
Peritonitis 4/6 (66.7) 2/5 (40)
Success by Organism§    
  C. albicans 57/81 (70.4) 45/73 (61.6)
  C. glabrata 16/23 (69.6) 19/31 (61.3)
  C. tropicalis 17/27 (63) 22/29 (75.9)
  C. parapsilosis 21/28 (75) 22/39 (56.4)
  C. krusei 5/8 (62.5) 2/3 (66.7)
  C. guilliermondii 1/2 0/1
  C. lusitaniae 2/3 (66.7) 2/2
Relapse through 6 Weeks    
Overall 49/135 (36.3) 44/119(37)
  Culture confirmed relapse 5 4
  Required systemic antifungal therapy 11 5
  Died during follow-up 17 16
  Not assessed 16 19
Overall study mortality 58/200 (29) 51/193 (26.4)
  Mortality during IV therapy 28/200 (14) 27/193 (14)
* 70 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 50 mg/day thereafter (caspofungin)
All patients who received at least one dose of study medication and had documented invasive candidiasis or candidemia.
Patients with Candida endocarditis were excluded from the analyses.
A patient may have had > 1 organ of dissemination
§ A patient may have had > 1 baseline infection species
All patients who had a culture confirmed relapse or required systemic antifungal therapy in the post treatment period for a suspected or proven Candida infection. Also includes patients who died or were not assessed in follow-up.

In two cases of ophthalmic involvement assessed as failures in the above table due to missing evaluation at the end of IV treatment with Mycamine, therapeutic success was documented during protocol-defined oral fluconazole therapy.

Treatment of Esophageal Candidiasis

In two controlled trials involving 763 patients with esophageal candidiasis, 445 adults with endoscopically-proven candidiasis received Mycamine, and 318 received fluconazole for a median duration of 14 days (range 1-33 days).

Mycamine was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind study which compared Mycamine 150 mg/day (n=260) to intravenous fluconazole 200 mg/day (n=258) in adults with endoscopically-proven esophageal candidiasis. Most patients in this study had HIV infection, with CD4 cell counts < 100 cells/mm3. Outcome was assessed by endoscopy and by clinical response at the end of treatment. Endoscopic cure was defined as endoscopic grade 0, based on a scale of 0-3. Clinical cure was defined as complete resolution in clinical symptoms of esophageal candidiasis (dysphagia, odynophagia, and retrosternal pain). Overall therapeutic cure was defined as both clinical and endoscopic cure. Mycological eradication was determined by culture, and by histological or cytological evaluation of esophageal biopsy or brushings obtained endoscopically at the end of treatment. As shown in Table 8, endoscopic cure, clinical cure, overall therapeutic cure, and mycological eradication were comparable for patients in the Mycamine and fluconazole treatment groups.

Table 8. Endoscopic, Clinical, and Mycological Outcomes for Esophageal Candidiasis at End-of-Treatment

Treatment Outcome* Mycamine
150 mg/day
Fluconazole
200 mg/day
% Difference
(95% CI)
  n=260 n=258  
Endoscopic Cure 228 (87.7%) 227 (88.0%) -0.3% (-5.9, +5.3)
Clinical Cure 239(91.9%) 237 (91.9%) 0.06% (-4.6, +4.8)
Overall Therapeutic Cure 223 (85.8%) 220 (85.3%) 0.5% (-5.6, +6.6)
Mycological Eradication 141/189 (74.6%) 149/192 (77.6%) -3.0% (-11.6, +5.6)
* Endoscopic and clinical outcome were measured in modified intent-to-treat population, including all randomized patients who received > 1 dose of study treatment. Mycological outcome was determined in the per protocol (evaluable) population, including patients with confirmed esophageal candidiasis who received at least 10 doses of study drug, and had no major protocol violations.
Calculated as Mycamine - fluconazole

Most patients (96%) in this study had Candida albicans isolated at baseline. The efficacy of Mycamine was evaluated in less than 10 patients with Candida species other than C. albicans, most of which were isolated concurrently with C. albicans.

Relapse was assessed at 2 and 4 weeks post-treatment in patients with overall therapeutic cure at end of treatment. Relapse was defined as a recurrence of clinical symptoms or endoscopic lesions (endoscopic grade > 0). There was no statistically significant difference in relapse rates at either 2 weeks or through 4 weeks post-treatment for patients in the Mycamine and fluconazole treatment groups, as shown in Table 9.

Table 9. Relapse of Esophageal Candidiasis at Week 2 and through Week 4 Post-Treatment in Patients with Overall Therapeutic Cure at the End of Treatment

Relapse Mycamlne
150 mg/day
n=223
Fluconazole
200 mg/day
n=220
% Difference*
(95% CI)
Relapse at Week 2 40 (17.9%) 30 (13.6%) 4.3% (-2.5, 11.1)
Relapse Through Week 4 (cumulative) 73 (32.7%) 62 (28.2%) 4.6% (-4.0, 13.1)
*Calculated as Mycamme - fluconazole; N=number of patients with overall therapeutic cure (both clinical and endoscopic cure at end-of-treatment);
Relapse included patients who died or were lost to follow-up, and those who received systemic anti-fungal therapy in the post-treatment period

In this study, 459 of 518 (88.6%) patients had oropharyngeal candidiasis in addition to esophageal candidiasis at baseline. At the end of treatment 192/230 (83.5%) Mycamine treated patients and 188/229 (82.1%) of fluconazole treated patients experienced resolution of signs and symptoms of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Of these, 32.3% in the Mycamine group, and 18.1% in the fluconazole group (treatment difference = 14.2%; 95% confidence interval [5.6, 22.8]) had symptomatic relapse at 2 weeks post-treatment. Relapse included patients who died or were lost to follow-up, and those who received systemic antifungal therapy during the post-treatment period. Cumulative relapse at 4 weeks post-treatment was 52.1% in the Mycamine group and 39.4% in the fluconazole group (treatment difference 12.7%, 95% confidence interval [2.8,22.7]).

Prophylaxis of Candida Infections in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

In a randomized, double-blind study, Mycamine (50 mg IV once daily) was compared to fluconazole (400 mg IV once daily) in 882 patients undergoing an autologous or syngeneic (46%) or allogeneic (54%) stem cell transplant. The status of the patients' underlying malignancy at the time of randomization was: 365 (41%) patients with active disease, 326 (37%) patients in remission, and 195 (22%) patients in relapse. The more common baseline underlying diseases in the 476 allogeneic transplant recipients were: chronic myelogenous leukemia (22%), acute myelogenous leukemia (21%), acute lymphocyric leukemia (13%), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (13%). In the 404 autologous and syngeneic transplant recipients the more common baseline underlying diseases were: multiple myeloma (37.1%), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (36.4%), and Hodgkin's disease (15.6%). During the study, 198 of 882 (22.4%) transplant recipients had proven graft-versus-host disease; and 475 of 882 (53.9%) recipients received immunosuppressive medications for treatment or prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease.

Study drug was continued until the patient had neutrophil recovery to an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of ≥ 500 cells/mm3 or up to a maximum of 42 days after transplant. The average duration of drug administration was 18 days (range 1 to 51 days).

Successful prophylaxis was defined as the absence of a proven, probable, or suspected systemic fungal infection through the end of therapy (usually 18 days), and the absence of a proven or probable systemic fungal infection through the end of the 4-week post-therapy period. A suspected systemic fungal infection was diagnosed in patients with neutropenia (ANC < 500 cells/mm3); persistent or recurrent fever (while ANC < 500 cells/mm3) of no known etiology; and failure to respond to at least 96 hours of broad spectrum antibacterial therapy. A persistent fever was defined as four consecutive days of fever greater than 38°C. A recurrent fever was defined as having at least one day with temperatures ≥ 38.5°C after having at least one prior temperature > 38°C; or having two days of temperatures > 38°C after having at least one prior temperature > 38°C. Transplant recipients who died or were lost to follow-up during the study were considered failures of prophylactic therapy.

Successful prophylaxis was documented in 80.7% of recipients who received Mycamine, and in 73.7% of recipients who received fluconazole (7.0% difference [95% CI = 1.5, 12.5]), as shown in Table 10, along with other study endpoints. The use of systemic antifungal therapy post-treatment was 42% in both groups.

The number of proven breakthrough Candida infections was 4 in the Mycamine and 2 in the fluconazole group.

The efficacy of Mycamine against infections caused by fungi other than Candida has not been established.

Table 10. Results from Clinical Study of Prophylaxis of Candida Infections in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

Outcome of Prophylaxis Mycamine
50 mg/day
(n=425)
Fluconazole
400 mg/day
(n=457)
Success* 343 (80.7%) 337 (73.7%)
Failure: 82 (19.3%) 120 (26.3%)
All Deaths 18 (4.2%) 26 (5.7%)
Proven/probable fungal infection prior to death 1 (0.2%) 3 (0.7%)
Proven/probable fungal infection (not resulting in death) 6 (1.4%) 8 (1.8%)
Suspected fungal infection 53 (12.5%) 83 (18.2%)
Lost to follow-up 5 (1.2%) 3 (0.7%)
Difference (Mycamine - Fluconazole): +7.0% [95% CI=1.5, 12.5]
Through end-of-study (4 weeks post-therapy)
Through end-of-therapy

Last reviewed on RxList: 7/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

PATIENT INFORMATION

Patients should be advised of the potential benefits and risks of Mycamine. Patients should be informed about the common adverse effects of Mycamine including hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions including shock), hematological effects (acute intravascular hemolysis, hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinuria), hepatic effects (abnormal liver function tests, hepatic impairment, hepatitis or worsening hepatic failure) and renal effects (elevations in BUN and creatinine, renal impairment or acute renal failure). Patients should be instructed to inform their health care provider if they develop any unusual symptom, or if any known symptom persists or worsens. Patients should be instructed to inform their health care provider of any other medications they are currently taking with Mycamine, including over-the-counter medications.

Last reviewed on RxList: 7/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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PATIENT INFORMATION

Patients should be advised of the potential benefits and risks of Mycamine. Patients should be informed about the common adverse effects of Mycamine including hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions including shock), hematological effects (acute intravascular hemolysis, hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinuria), hepatic effects (abnormal liver function tests, hepatic impairment, hepatitis or worsening hepatic failure) and renal effects (elevations in BUN and creatinine, renal impairment or acute renal failure). Patients should be instructed to inform their health care provider if they develop any unusual symptom, or if any known symptom persists or worsens. Patients should be instructed to inform their health care provider of any other medications they are currently taking with Mycamine, including over-the-counter medications.

Last reviewed on RxList: 7/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Disclaimer

Mycamine Consumer

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

MICAFUNGIN - INJECTION

(mike-a-FUN-gen)

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Mycamine

USES: This medication is used to treat certain fungal infections in the esophagus. It is also used to prevent fungal infections if you are having a bone marrow or stem cell transplant, since people with weak immune systems have a higher risk of fungal infections.

Micafungin belongs to a class of drugs known as echinocandins. It works by stopping the growth of fungus.

HOW TO USE: This medication is given by infusion into a vein as directed by your doctor, usually once a day. It should be injected slowly over 1 hour. The dose and length of treatment depend on your condition and response to therapy.

If you are giving this medication to yourself at home, learn all preparation and usage instructions from your health care professional. Before using, check this product visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the liquid. Learn how to store and discard medical supplies safely.

Continue using this medication for the full time prescribed. Stopping this medication too soon may allow fungus to continue to grow, which may result in a relapse of your infection.

Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.

Disclaimer

Mycamine Consumer (continued)

SIDE EFFECTS: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, trouble sleeping, or irritation at the site of injection may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: signs of infection (e.g., persistent sore throat, pain during urination), chills, fever, dark urine, persistent nausea/vomiting, stomach/abdominal pain, yellowing of eyes/skin, easy bleeding/bruising, unusual fatigue, fast/pounding heartbeat, change in the amount of urine.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is unlikely, but get medical help right away if it occurs. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction may include: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Read the Mycamine (micafungin sodium) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

PRECAUTIONS: Before using micafungin, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver disease, kidney disease, blood disorders (e.g., anemia, decreased bone marrow function).

This medication should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is not known whether this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Disclaimer

Mycamine Consumer (continued)

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

Some products that may interact with this drug include: itraconazole, nifedipine, sirolimus.

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call the US national poison hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canadian residents should call their local poison control center directly.

NOTES: Laboratory and/or medical tests (e.g., liver, kidney and blood tests such as CBC, electrolytes) may be performed to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

MISSED DOSE: For the best possible benefit, it is important to receive each scheduled dose of this medication as directed. If you miss a dose, contact your doctor or pharmacist immediately to establish a new dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

STORAGE: Consult the product instructions and your pharmacist for storage details. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

Information last revised September 2011. Copyright(c) 2011 First Databank, Inc.

Mycamine Patient Information Including Side Effects

Brand Names: Mycamine

Generic Name: micafungin (Pronunciation: MYE ka FUN jen)

What is micafungin (Mycamine)?

Micafungin is an antifungal antibiotic that fights infections caused by fungus.

Micafungin is used to treat infections caused by the Candida fungus. Micafungin is also used to prevent Candida fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients.

Micafungin may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What are the possible side effects of micafungin (Mycamine)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; feeling like you might pass out; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • pale skin, dark colored urine, confusion or weakness;
  • upper stomach pain, itching, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms;
  • easy bruising, unusual bleeding (nose, mouth, vagina, or rectum), purple or red pinpoint spots under your skin;
  • urinating less than usual or not at all;
  • drowsiness, mood changes, increased thirst, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting;
  • swelling, weight gain, feeling short of breath;
  • uneven heart rate, extreme thirst, increased urination, leg discomfort, muscle weakness or limp feeling; or
  • severe skin reaction -- fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain, followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • flushing (warmth, redness, or tingly feeling);
  • mild nausea, vomiting, or stomach pain;
  • diarrhea, constipation, indigestion;
  • headache;
  • sleep problems (insomnia);
  • mild itching or skin rash; or
  • pain, swelling, or tenderness where the medicine was injected.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Mycamine (micafungin sodium) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

What is the most important information I should know about micafungin (Mycamine)?

You should not use this medication if you are allergic to micafungin or similar medicines such as caspofungin (Cancidas) or anidulafungin (Eraxis).

Before using micafungin, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs, if you have liver or kidney disease, or if you are also using sirolimus (Rapamune), itraconazole (Sporanox), or nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia).

Micafungin is injected into a vein through an IV. You may be shown how to use an IV at home. Do not self-inject this medicine if you do not fully understand how to give the injection and properly dispose of used needles, IV tubing, and other items used to inject the medicine.

You may need to receive this medication for several weeks.

Side Effects Centers

Mycamine Patient Information including How Should I Take

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using micafungin (Mycamine)?

You should not use this medication if you are allergic to micafungin or similar medicines such as caspofungin (Cancidas) or anidulafungin (Eraxis).

To make sure you can safely use micafungin, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

  • liver disease; or
  • kidney disease.

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether micafungin will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using this medication.

It is not known whether micafungin passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How is micafungin given (Mycamine)?

Micafungin is injected into a vein through an IV. You may be shown how to use an IV at home. Do not self-inject this medicine if you do not fully understand how to give the injection and properly dispose of used needles, IV tubing, and other items used to inject the medicine.

Micafungin must be mixed with a liquid (diluent) before using it. If you are using the injections at home, be sure you understand how to properly mix and store the medicine.

Micafungin must be given slowly through an IV infusion, and each injection can take at least 1 hour to complete. Do not mix micafungin with any other medicines, or give other medicines through the same IV line.

Micafungin is usually given once daily. You may need to receive this medication for several weeks.

Do not shake the medication bottle or you may ruin the medicine. Prepare your dose in an IV bag only when you are ready to give yourself an injection. Do not use the medication if it has changed colors or has particles in it. Call your doctor for a new prescription.

After mixing this medicine, do not expose it to light. Cover the IV bag during your infusion to protect the medicine from light. Use the medicine within 24 hours after mixing.

Use each disposable needle only one time. Throw away used needles in a puncture-proof container (ask your pharmacist where you can get one and how to dispose of it). Keep this container out of the reach of children and pets.

If you store micafungin at home, keep it at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light. Mixed medicine can be stored at room temperature but must be used within 24 hours after mixing.

Side Effects Centers

Mycamine Patient Information including If I Miss a Dose

What happens if I miss a dose (Mycamine)?

Call your doctor for instructions if you miss a dose of micafungin.

What happens if I overdose (Mycamine)?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

What should I avoid while using micafungin (Mycamine)?

Follow your doctor's instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity.

What other drugs will affect micafungin (Mycamine)?

Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use, especially:

  • sirolimus (Rapamune);
  • itraconazole (Sporanox); or
  • nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia).

This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with micafungin. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about micafungin.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 2.01. Revision date: 10/14/2011.

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