Nafcillin Sodium (Nafcillin Injection)
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Nafcillin Sodium (Nafcillin Injection)

Nafcillin Injection USP
in PL 2040 Plastic Container

For Intravenous Use Only
GALAXY Container (PL 2040 Plastic)

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Nafcillin Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Nafcillin Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Nafcillin Injection, USP is a sterile injectable product containing nafcillin which is added as Nafcillin Sodium, USP, a semisynthetic penicillin derived from the penicillin nucleus, 6aminopenicillanic acid. The chemical name of nafcillin sodium is Monosodium (2S,5R,6R)-6-(2ethoxy-1-naphthamido)-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1- azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate monohydrate. It is resistant to inactivation by the enzyme penicillinase (beta-lactamase). The molecular formula of Nafcillin Sodium, USP is C21H21N2NaO5S•H2O. The molecular weight is 454.48. The structural formula of nafcillin sodium is as follows:

Nafcillin Structural Formula Illustration

Nafcillin Injection, USP is a frozen, iso-osmotic, sterile, nonpyrogenic premixed 50 mL or 100 mL solution containing 1 g or 2 g of nafcillin, respectively, added as Nafcillin Sodium, USP. Dextrose, USP has been added to the above dosages to adjust osmolality (approximately 1.8 g and 3.6 g as dextrose hydrous to the 1 g and 2 g dosages, respectively). Sodium Citrate Hydrous, USP has been added as a buffer (approximately 90 mg and 180 mg to the 1 g and 2 g dosages, respectively). The pH has been adjusted with hydrochloric acid and may have been adjusted with sodium hydroxide. The pH is 6.5 (6.0 to 8.5). The solution is intended for intravenous use after thawing to room temperature.

This GALAXY container is fabricated from a specially designed multilayer plastic (PL 2040). Solutions are in contact with the polyethylene layer of this container and can leach out certain chemical components of the plastic in very small amounts within the expiration period. The suitability of the plastic has been confirmed in tests in animals according to the USP biological tests for plastic containers, as well as by tissue culture toxicity studies.

What are the possible side effects of nafcillin (Nallpen, Unipen)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives, itching; fever, stomach pain, muscle or joint pain; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. A delayed allergic reaction to nafcillin can occur as few as 2 days to as many as 4 weeks after you use the medication.

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms, sores in your mouth and throat;
  • skin rash, bruising, severe tingling,...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Nafcillin Injection »

Last reviewed on RxList: 11/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

INDICATIONS

Nafcillin is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci which have demonstrated susceptibility to the drug. Culture and susceptibility tests should be performed initially to determine the causative organism and its susceptibility to the drug (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY - Susceptibility Test Methods).

Nafcillin may be used to initiate therapy in suspected cases of resistant staphylococcal infections prior to the availability of susceptibility test results. Nafcillin should not be used in infections caused by organisms susceptible to penicillin G. If the susceptibility tests indicate that the infection is due to an organism other than a resistant Staphylococcus, therapy should not be continued with Nafcillin Injection, USP.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Nafcillin Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Nafcillin Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Nafcillin Injection, USP supplied as a premixed frozen solution is to be administered as an intravenous infusion. The usual I.V. dosage for adults is 500 mg every 4 hours. For severe infections, 1 g every 4 hours is recommended. Administer slowly over at least 30 to 60 minutes to minimize the risk of vein irritation and extravasation. Bacteriologic studies to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to nafcillin should always be performed. Duration of therapy varies with the type and severity of infection as well as the overall condition of the patient; therefore, it should be determined by the clinical and bacteriological response of the patient. In severe staphylococcal infections, therapy with nafcillin should be continued for at least 14 days. Therapy should be continued for at least 48 hours after the patient has become afebrile, asymptomatic, and cultures are negative. The treatment of endocarditis and osteomyelitis may require a longer duration of therapy.

Nafcillin-probenecid therapy is generally limited to those infections where very high serum levels of nafcillin are necessary.

No dosage alterations are necessary for patients with renal dysfunction, including those on hemodialysis. Hemodialysis does not accelerate nafcillin clearance from the blood.

For patients with hepatic insufficiency and renal failure, measurement of nafcillin serum levels should be performed and dosage adjusted accordingly.

With intravenous administration, particularly in elderly patients, care should be taken because of the possibility of thrombophlebitis.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.

Do not add supplementary medication to Nafcillin Injection, USP.

Store in a freezer capable of maintaining a temperature of -20°C (-4°F) or less.

Directions For Use Of Galaxy Container (Pl 2040 Plastic)

Nafcillin Injection, USP in GALAXY container (PL 2040 Plastic) is for intravenous administration using sterile equipment.

Storage

Store in a freezer capable of maintaining a temperature of -20°C/-4°F.

Thawing of Plastic Containers

Thaw frozen container at room temperature (25°C/77°F) or under refrigeration (5°C/41°F). [DO NOT FORCE THAW BY IMMERSION IN WATER BATHS OR BY MICROWAVE IRRADIATION.] Check for minute leaks by squeezing bag firmly. If leaks are detected, discard solution as sterility may be impaired.

Do not add supplementary medication.

The container should be visually inspected. Components of the solution may precipitate in the frozen state and will dissolve upon reaching room temperature with little or no agitation. Potency is not affected. Agitate after solution has reached room temperature. If after visual inspection the solution remains cloudy or if an insoluble precipitate is noted or if any seals or outlet ports are not intact, the container should be discarded.

The thawed 1 g and 2 g solutions are stable for 21 days under refrigeration (5°C/41°F) or 72 hours at room temperature (25°C/77°F). Do not refreeze.

Caution: Do not use plastic containers in series connections. Such use could result in air embolism due to residual air being drawn from the primary container before administration of the fluid from the secondary container is complete.

Preparation for intravenous administration

  1. Suspend container from eyelet support.
  2. Remove protector from outlet port at bottom of container.
  3. Attach administration set. Refer to complete directions accompanying set.

HOW SUPPLIED

Storage And Handling

Nafcillin Injection, USP is supplied as a premixed frozen iso-osmotic solution in 50 mL and 100 mL single dose GALAXY containers (PL 2040 Plastic) as follows:

2G3540 NDC 0338-1017-41 1 gram nafcillin in 50 mL
2G3556 NDC 0338-1019-48 2 grams nafcillin in 100 mL

Store at or below -20°C/-4°F. See Directions for Use of GALAXY Container (PL 2040 Plastic).

Handle frozen product containers with care. Product containers may be fragile in the frozen state.

Baxter Healthcare Corporation. Deerfield, IL 60015 USA. Rev. October 2011

Last reviewed on RxList: 11/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

SIDE EFFECTS

Body as a Whole

The reported incidence of allergic reactions to penicillin ranges from 0.7 to 10 percent (see WARNINGS). Sensitization is usually the result of treatment, but some individuals have had immediate reactions to penicillin when first treated. In such cases, it is thought that the patients may have had prior exposure to the drug via trace amounts present in milk or vaccines. Two types of allergic reactions to penicillins are noted clinically, immediate and delayed.

Immediate reactions usually occur within 20 minutes of administration and range in severity from urticaria and pruritus to angioneurotic edema, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, hypotension, vascular collapse, and death. Such immediate anaphylactic reactions are very rare (see WARNINGS) and usually occur after parenteral therapy but have occurred in patients receiving oral therapy. Another type of immediate reaction, an accelerated reaction, may occur between 20 minutes and 48 hours after administration and may include urticaria, pruritus, and fever.

Although laryngeal edema, laryngospasm, and hypotension occasionally occur, fatality is uncommon. Delayed allergic reactions to penicillin therapy usually occur after 48 hours and sometimes as late as 2 to 4 weeks after initiation of therapy. Manifestations of this type of reaction include serum sickness-like symptoms (i.e., fever, malaise, urticaria, myalgia, arthralgia, abdominal pain) and various skin rashes. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomatitis, black or hairy tongue, and other symptoms of gastrointestinal irritation may occur, especially during oral penicillin therapy.

Local Reactions

Pain, swelling, inflammation, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, and occasional skin sloughing at the injection site have occurred with intravenous administration of nafcillin. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) Severe tissue necrosis with sloughing secondary to subcutaneous extravasation of nafcillin has been reported.

Nervous System Reactions

Neurotoxic reactions similar to those observed with penicillin G could occur with large intravenous or intraventricular doses of nafcillin especially in patients with concomitant hepatic insufficiency and renal dysfunction. (See PRECAUTIONS).

Urogenital Reactions

Renal tubular damage and interstitial nephritis have been associated infrequently with the administration of nafcillin. Manifestations of this reaction may include rash, fever, eosinophilia, hematuria, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency.

Gastrointestinal Reactions

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with the use of nafcillin. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment (see WARNINGS).

Metabolic Reactions

Agranulocytosis, neutropenia, and bone marrow depression have been associated with the use of nafcillin.

Read the Nafcillin Injection (nafcillin sodium) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Tetracycline, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, may antagonize the bactericidal effect of penicillin, and concurrent use of these drugs should be avoided.

Nafcillin in high dosage regimens, i.e., 2 grams every 4 hours, has been reported to decrease the effects of warfarin. When nafcillin and warfarin are used concomitantly, the prothrombin time should be closely monitored and the dose of warfarin adjusted as necessary. This effect may persist for up to 30 days after nafcillin has been discontinued.

Nafcillin when administered concomitantly with cyclosporine has been reported to result in subtherapeutic cyclosporine levels. The nafcillin-cyclosporine interaction was documented in a patient during two separate courses of therapy. When cyclosporine and nafcillin are used concomitantly in organ transplant patients, the cyclosporine levels should be monitored.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Nafcillin in the urine can cause a false-positive urine reaction for protein when the sulfosalicyclic acid test is used, but not with the dipstick.

Last reviewed on RxList: 11/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

WARNINGS

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. There have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity who have experienced severe reactions when treated with cephalosporins. Before initiating therapy with Nafcillin, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, Nafcillin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine. Oxygen, intravenous steroids, and airway management, including intubation, should also be administered as indicated.

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Nafcillin Injection, USP, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Nafcillin should generally not be administered to patients with a history of sensitivity to any penicillin.

Penicillin should be used with caution in individuals with histories of significant allergies and/or asthma. Whenever allergic reactions occur, penicillin should be withdrawn unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to penicillin therapy. The use of antibiotics may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. If new infections due to bacteria or fungi occur, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures taken.

The liver/biliary tract is the primary route of nafcillin clearance. Caution should be exercised when patients with concomitant hepatic insufficiency and renal dysfunction are treated with nafcillin. Serum levels should be measured and the dosage adjusted appropriately to avoid possible neurotoxic reactions associated with very high concentrations (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Prescribing Nafcillin Injection, USP in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Laboratory Tests

Bacteriologic studies to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to nafcillin should be performed. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY - Microbiology.) In the treatment of suspected staphylococcal infections, therapy should be changed to another active agent if culture tests fail to demonstrate the presence of staphylococci.

Periodic assessment of organ system function including renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic should be made during prolonged therapy with nafcillin. White blood cell and differential cell counts should be obtained prior to initiation of therapy and periodically during therapy with nafcillin. Periodic urinalysis, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine determinations should be performed during therapy with nafcillin. SGOT and SGPT values should be obtained periodically during therapy to monitor for possible liver function abnormalities.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No long term animal studies have been conducted with these drugs. Studies on reproduction (nafcillin) in rats and mice reveal no fetal or maternal abnormalities before conception and continuously through weaning (one generation).

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category B

Reproduction studies have been performed in the mouse with oral doses up to 20 times the human dose and orally in the rat at doses up to 40 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the rodent fetus due to nafcillin. There are, however, no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, nafcillin should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

Penicillins are excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when penicillins are administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

The liver/biliary tract is the principal route of nafcillin elimination. Because of immature hepatic and renal function in pediatric patients, nafcillin excretion may be impaired, with abnormally high serum levels resulting. Serum levels should be monitored and the dosage adjusted appropriately. There are no approved pediatric patient dosage regimens for intravenous nafcillin. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

The potential for toxic effects in pediatric patients from chemicals that may leach from the single dose premixed intravenous preparation in plastic containers has not been determined.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Nafcillin Injection, USP did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Nafcillin Injection, USP contains 76.6 mg (3.33 mEq) of sodium per gram. At the usual recommended doses, patients would receive between 230 and 460 mg/day (10.0 and 20.0 mEq) of sodium. The geriatric population may respond with a blunted natriuresis to salt loading. This may be clinically important with regard to such diseases as congestive heart failure.

Last reviewed on RxList: 11/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OVERDOSE

Neurotoxic reactions similar to those observed with penicillin G may arise with intravenous doses of nafcillin especially in patients with concomitant hepatic insufficiency and renal dysfunction (see PRECAUTIONS).

In the case of overdosage, discontinue nafcillin, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures as required. Hemodialysis does not increase the rate of clearance of nafcillin from the blood.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

A history of a hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reaction to any penicillin is a contraindication.

Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with known allergy to corn or corn products.

Last reviewed on RxList: 11/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

In a study of five healthy adults administered a single 500 mg dose of nafcillin by intravenous injection over seven minutes, the mean plasma concentration of the drug was approximately 30 mcg/mL at 5 minutes after injection. The mean area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) for nafcillin in this study was 18.06 mcg•h/mL.

The serum half-life of nafcillin administered by the intravenous route ranged from 33 to 61 minutes as measured in three separate studies.

In contrast to the other penicillinase-resistant penicillins, only about 30% of nafcillin is excreted as unchanged drug in the urine of normal volunteers, and most within the first six hours. Nafcillin is primarily eliminated by nonrenal routes, namely hepatic inactivation and excretion in the bile.

Nafcillin binds to serum proteins, mainly albumin. The degree of protein binding reported for nafcillin is 89.9 ± 1.5%. Reported values vary with the method of study and the investigator.

The concurrent administration of probenecid with nafcillin increases and prolongs plasma concentrations of nafcillin. Probenecid significantly reduces the total body clearance of nafcillin with renal clearance being decreased to a greater extent than nonrenal clearance.

The penicillinase-resistant penicillins are widely distributed in various body fluids, including bile, pleural, amniotic and synovial fluids. With normal doses insignificant concentrations are found in the aqueous humor of the eye. High nafcillin CSF levels have been obtained in the presence of inflamed meninges.

Renal failure does not appreciably affect the serum half-life of nafcillin; therefore, no modification of the usual nafcillin dosage is necessary in renal failure with or without hemodialysis. Hemodialysis does not accelerate the rate of clearance of nafcillin from the blood.

A study which assessed the effects of cirrhosis and extrahepatic biliary obstruction in man demonstrated that the plasma clearance of nafcillin was significantly decreased in patients with hepatic dysfunction. In these patients with cirrhosis and extrahepatic obstruction, nafcillin excretion in the urine was significantly increased from about 30 to 50% of the administered dose, suggesting that renal disease superimposed on hepatic disease could further decrease nafcillin clearance.

Microbiology

Penicillinase-resistant penicillins exert a bactericidal action against penicillin-susceptible microorganisms during the state of active multiplication. All penicillins inhibit the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. The drugs in this class are highly resistant to inactivation by staphylococcal penicillinase and are active against penicillinase producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The penicillinase-resistant penicillins are active in vitro against a variety of other bacteria.

Susceptibility Test Methods

When available, the clinical microbiology laboratory should provide the results of in vitro susceptibility test results for antimicrobial drugs used in local hospitals and practice areas to the physician as periodic reports that describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. These reports should aid the physician in selecting the most effective antimicrobial.

Dilution Techniques

Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure based on dilution method1,2 (broth, agar or microdilution) or equivalent. It has been reported that determination of susceptibility or resistance of a microorganism to all penicillinase-resistant penicillins, including nafcillin, may be deduced by testing microorganisms against either oxacillin or cefoxitin.2 For this reason, routine dilution testing of nafcillin is not advised and susceptibility to nafcillin should be determined by dilution using standardized inoculum and concentrations of oxacillin according to the criteria in Table 1.1,2

Table 1: Staphylococcus aureus MIC Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria for Oxacillina

Pathogen Minimum Inhibitory Oxacillin Concentrations (mcg/mL)
Susceptible (S) Resistant (R)
Staphylococcus aureus ≤ 2.0 ≥ 4.0
a Staphylococcus aureus strains found to be “Susceptible” or “Resistant” to oxacillin by dilution testing can be considered to be “Susceptible” or “Resistant” to nafcillin.

Diffusion Techniques

Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure2,3 requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. It has been reported that determination of susceptibility or resistance of a microorganism to all penicillinase-resistant penicillins, including nafcillin, may be deduced by testing microorganisms against either oxacillin or cefoxitin.2 Disk diffusion results using cefoxitin have been shown to be more reproducible than those obtained with oxacillin,4,5 therefore cefoxitin is the preferred reagent for testing nafcillin susceptibility by diffusion. Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 30 microgram cefoxitin disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria in Table 2.

Table 2: Staphylococcus aureus Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria for Nafcillin Using a 30 mcg Cefoxitin Diska

Pathogen Disk DiffusionDiameters (mm)
Susceptible (S) Resistant (R)
Staphylococcus aureus ≥ 22 ≤ 21
a Staphylococcus aureus strains found to be “Susceptible” or “Resistant” to cefoxitin by disk diffusion can be considered to be “Susceptible' or “Resistant” to nafcillin.

A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited by usually achievable concentrations of the antimicrobial compound in blood. A report of “Resistant” indicates that usually achievable concentrations of the antimicrobial compound in the blood are unlikely to be inhibitory and that other therapy should be selected.

Measurement of MIC or MBC and achieved antimicrobial compound concentrations may be appropriate to guide therapy in some infections. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY section for further information on drug concentrations achieved in infected body sites and other pharmacokinetic properties of this antimicrobial drug product.)

Quality Control

Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to monitor and ensure the accuracy and precision of the supplies and reagents used in the assay, and the techniques of the individuals performing the test. Appropriate quality control organisms and acceptable corresponding ranges of oxacillin MICs obtained by dilution testing or inhibition zones around 30 mcg cefoxitin disks are provided in Table 3.

Table 3: In Vitro Susceptibility Test Quality Control Ranges for Oxacillin and Cefoxitin

Organism (ATTC #) Oxacillin MIC range (mcg/mL) Cefoxitin disk diffusion range (mm)
Staphylococcus aureus (29213) 0.12 - 0.5 Not applicable
Staphylococcus aureus (25923) Not applicable 23 - 29

REFERENCES

1. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard- Eighth Edition. CLSI Document M07-A8 (ISBN 1-56238-689-1). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2009.

2. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-First Informational Supplement. CLSI Document M100S21 (ISBN 1-56238-742-1). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2011.

3. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard-Tenth Edition. CLSI Document M02-A10 (ISBN 1-56238-688-3). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2009.

4. Palazzo ICV, Darini ALC. Evaluation of methods for detecting oxacillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci including cefoxitin disc diffusion. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2006;257:299-305

5. Swenson JM, Tenover FC; Cefoxitin Disk Study Group. Results of disk diffusion testing with cefoxitin correlate with presence of mecA in Staphylococcus spp. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:3818-23.

Last reviewed on RxList: 11/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

PATIENT INFORMATION

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Nafcillin Injection, USP should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Nafcillin Injection, USP is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Nafcillin Injection, USP or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Last reviewed on RxList: 11/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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PATIENT INFORMATION

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Nafcillin Injection, USP should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Nafcillin Injection, USP is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Nafcillin Injection, USP or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Last reviewed on RxList: 11/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Nafcillin Injection USP
in PL 2040 Plastic Container

For Intravenous Use Only
GALAXY Container (PL 2040 Plastic)

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Nafcillin Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Nafcillin Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Nafcillin Injection, USP is a sterile injectable product containing nafcillin which is added as Nafcillin Sodium, USP, a semisynthetic penicillin derived from the penicillin nucleus, 6aminopenicillanic acid. The chemical name of nafcillin sodium is Monosodium (2S,5R,6R)-6-(2ethoxy-1-naphthamido)-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1- azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate monohydrate. It is resistant to inactivation by the enzyme penicillinase (beta-lactamase). The molecular formula of Nafcillin Sodium, USP is C21H21N2NaO5S•H2O. The molecular weight is 454.48. The structural formula of nafcillin sodium is as follows:

Nafcillin Structural Formula Illustration

Nafcillin Injection, USP is a frozen, iso-osmotic, sterile, nonpyrogenic premixed 50 mL or 100 mL solution containing 1 g or 2 g of nafcillin, respectively, added as Nafcillin Sodium, USP. Dextrose, USP has been added to the above dosages to adjust osmolality (approximately 1.8 g and 3.6 g as dextrose hydrous to the 1 g and 2 g dosages, respectively). Sodium Citrate Hydrous, USP has been added as a buffer (approximately 90 mg and 180 mg to the 1 g and 2 g dosages, respectively). The pH has been adjusted with hydrochloric acid and may have been adjusted with sodium hydroxide. The pH is 6.5 (6.0 to 8.5). The solution is intended for intravenous use after thawing to room temperature.

This GALAXY container is fabricated from a specially designed multilayer plastic (PL 2040). Solutions are in contact with the polyethylene layer of this container and can leach out certain chemical components of the plastic in very small amounts within the expiration period. The suitability of the plastic has been confirmed in tests in animals according to the USP biological tests for plastic containers, as well as by tissue culture toxicity studies.

Last reviewed on RxList: 11/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Nafcillin Injection USP
in PL 2040 Plastic Container

For Intravenous Use Only
GALAXY Container (PL 2040 Plastic)

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Nafcillin Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Nafcillin Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Nafcillin Injection, USP is a sterile injectable product containing nafcillin which is added as Nafcillin Sodium, USP, a semisynthetic penicillin derived from the penicillin nucleus, 6aminopenicillanic acid. The chemical name of nafcillin sodium is Monosodium (2S,5R,6R)-6-(2ethoxy-1-naphthamido)-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1- azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate monohydrate. It is resistant to inactivation by the enzyme penicillinase (beta-lactamase). The molecular formula of Nafcillin Sodium, USP is C21H21N2NaO5S•H2O. The molecular weight is 454.48. The structural formula of nafcillin sodium is as follows:

Nafcillin Structural Formula Illustration

Nafcillin Injection, USP is a frozen, iso-osmotic, sterile, nonpyrogenic premixed 50 mL or 100 mL solution containing 1 g or 2 g of nafcillin, respectively, added as Nafcillin Sodium, USP. Dextrose, USP has been added to the above dosages to adjust osmolality (approximately 1.8 g and 3.6 g as dextrose hydrous to the 1 g and 2 g dosages, respectively). Sodium Citrate Hydrous, USP has been added as a buffer (approximately 90 mg and 180 mg to the 1 g and 2 g dosages, respectively). The pH has been adjusted with hydrochloric acid and may have been adjusted with sodium hydroxide. The pH is 6.5 (6.0 to 8.5). The solution is intended for intravenous use after thawing to room temperature.

This GALAXY container is fabricated from a specially designed multilayer plastic (PL 2040). Solutions are in contact with the polyethylene layer of this container and can leach out certain chemical components of the plastic in very small amounts within the expiration period. The suitability of the plastic has been confirmed in tests in animals according to the USP biological tests for plastic containers, as well as by tissue culture toxicity studies.

Last reviewed on RxList: 11/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Nafcillin Injection USP
in PL 2040 Plastic Container

For Intravenous Use Only
GALAXY Container (PL 2040 Plastic)

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Nafcillin Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Nafcillin Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Nafcillin Injection, USP is a sterile injectable product containing nafcillin which is added as Nafcillin Sodium, USP, a semisynthetic penicillin derived from the penicillin nucleus, 6aminopenicillanic acid. The chemical name of nafcillin sodium is Monosodium (2S,5R,6R)-6-(2ethoxy-1-naphthamido)-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1- azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate monohydrate. It is resistant to inactivation by the enzyme penicillinase (beta-lactamase). The molecular formula of Nafcillin Sodium, USP is C21H21N2NaO5S•H2O. The molecular weight is 454.48. The structural formula of nafcillin sodium is as follows:

Nafcillin Structural Formula Illustration

Nafcillin Injection, USP is a frozen, iso-osmotic, sterile, nonpyrogenic premixed 50 mL or 100 mL solution containing 1 g or 2 g of nafcillin, respectively, added as Nafcillin Sodium, USP. Dextrose, USP has been added to the above dosages to adjust osmolality (approximately 1.8 g and 3.6 g as dextrose hydrous to the 1 g and 2 g dosages, respectively). Sodium Citrate Hydrous, USP has been added as a buffer (approximately 90 mg and 180 mg to the 1 g and 2 g dosages, respectively). The pH has been adjusted with hydrochloric acid and may have been adjusted with sodium hydroxide. The pH is 6.5 (6.0 to 8.5). The solution is intended for intravenous use after thawing to room temperature.

This GALAXY container is fabricated from a specially designed multilayer plastic (PL 2040). Solutions are in contact with the polyethylene layer of this container and can leach out certain chemical components of the plastic in very small amounts within the expiration period. The suitability of the plastic has been confirmed in tests in animals according to the USP biological tests for plastic containers, as well as by tissue culture toxicity studies.

Last reviewed on RxList: 11/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Nafcillin Injection Patient Information Including Side Effects

Brand Names: Nallpen, Unipen

Generic Name: nafcillin (injection) (Pronunciation: naf SIL in)

What is nafcillin (Nafcillin Injection)?

Nafcillin is an antibiotic in the penicillin group of drugs. It fights bacteria in your body.

Nafcillin is used to treat many different types of infections, especially those caused by staphylococcus bacteria ("staph" infections).

Nafcillin may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What are the possible side effects of nafcillin (Nafcillin Injection)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives, itching; fever, stomach pain, muscle or joint pain; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. A delayed allergic reaction to nafcillin can occur as few as 2 days to as many as 4 weeks after you use the medication.

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms, sores in your mouth and throat;
  • skin rash, bruising, severe tingling, numbness, pain, muscle weakness;
  • blood in your urine, urinating less than usual or not at all; or
  • pain, swelling, tenderness, or skin changes where the medicine was injected.

Less serious side effects are more likely to occur, such as:

  • nausea, vomiting;
  • vaginal itching or discharge; or
  • black or "hairy" tongue.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Nafcillin Injection (nafcillin sodium) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

What is the most important information I should know about nafcillin (Nafcillin Injection)?

You should not use this medication if you are allergic to nafcillin or to any other penicillin antibiotic, such as amoxicillin (Amoxil), ampicillin (Omnipen, Principen), oxacillin (Bactocill), penicillin (Beepen-VK, Ledercillin VK, Pen-V, Pen-Vee K, Pfizerpen, V-Cillin K, Veetids), and others.

Before using nafcillin, tell your doctor if you are allergic to cephalosporins such as Ceftin, Cefzil, Keflex, Omnicef, and others, or if you have asthma, liver or kidney disease, or a history of any type of allergy.

Use this medication for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Nafcillin is usually given for up to 2 days after lab tests show that the infection has cleared.

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, stop taking nafcillin and call your doctor. Do not use anti-diarrhea medicine unless your doctor tells you to.

Side Effects Centers

Nafcillin Injection Patient Information including How Should I Take

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using nafcillin (Nafcillin Injection)?

You should not use this medication if you are allergic to nafcillin or to any other penicillin antibiotic, such as:

  • amoxicillin (Amoxil, Amoxicot, Biomox, Dispermox, Trimox);
  • ampicillin (Omnipen, Principen);
  • carbenicillin (Geocillin);
  • cloxacillin (Cloxapen);
  • dicloxacillin (Dycill, Dynapen);
  • oxacillin (Bactocill); or
  • penicillin (Beepen-VK, Ledercillin VK, Pen-V, Pen-Vee K, Pfizerpen, V-Cillin K, Veetids, and others).

Before using nafcillin, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs (especially cephalosporins such as Ceftin, Cefzil, Keflex, Omnicef, and others), or if you have:

  • asthma;
  • liver disease;
  • kidney disease; or
  • a history of any type of allergy.

If you have any of these conditions, you may need a dosage adjustment or special tests during treatment.

FDA pregnancy category B. This medication is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.

Nafcillin can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I use nafcillin (Nafcillin Injection)?

Nafcillin is injected into a vein through an IV. You may be shown how to use an IV at home. Do not self-inject this medicine if you do not fully understand how to give the injection and properly dispose of used needles, IV tubing, and other items used to inject the medicine.

Nafcillin is usually given every 4 hours. The medicine must be given slowly through an IV infusion, and can take up to 1 hour to complete.

Tell your caregivers if you feel any burning, pain, or swelling around the IV needle when the medicine is injected.

To be sure this medicine is helping your condition, your blood will need to be tested often. Your liver and kidney function may also need to be tested. Visit your doctor regularly.

Use this medication for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Nafcillin is usually given for up to 2 days after lab tests show that the infection has cleared.

Nafcillin in vials (bottles) should be stored at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Nafcillin that is supplied in a premixed frozen solution should be stored in a deep freezer at a temperature of 4 degrees below 0.

Thaw the medicine either in a refrigerator or at room temperature. Do not heat the medicine to thaw it more quickly.

Nafcillin that is thawed in the refrigerator should be used within 21 days. If you have thawed the medicine at room temperature, you must use it within 72 hours. Do not refreeze.

Once nafcillin has been thawed, it should look clear. Do not use the medicine if it looks cloudy or has particles in it, or if the medicine container leaks. Call your doctor or pharmacist for a new prescription

Side Effects Centers

Nafcillin Injection Patient Information including If I Miss a Dose

What happens if I miss a dose (Nafcillin Injection)?

Use the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not use extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose (Nafcillin Injection)?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

Overdose symptoms may include muscle spasms or weakness, muscle pain or twitching, numbness or tingly feeling, confusion, feeling light-headed, fainting, and seizure (black-out or convulsions).

What should I avoid while using nafcillin (Nafcillin Injection)?

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, stop taking nafcillin and call your doctor. Do not use anti-diarrhea medicine unless your doctor tells you to.

What other drugs will affect nafcillin (Nafcillin Injection)?

Before using nafcillin, tell your doctor if you are using any of the following drugs:

  • cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune);
  • a blood thinner such as warfarin (Coumadin); or
  • an antibiotic such as doxycycline (Adoxa, Doryx, Oracea, Vibramycin), minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin, Solodyn, Vectrin), or tetracycline (Brodspec, Panmycin, Sumycin, Tetracap).

This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with nafcillin. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about nafcillin.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 7.02. Revision date: 12/15/2010.

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