Quinupristin and Dalfopristin (Synercid)
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Quinupristin and Dalfopristin (Synercid)

Synercid® I.V.
(quinupristin and dalfopristin) for Injection

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Synercid® (quinupristin and dalfopristin powder for injection) I.V., a streptogramin antibacterial agent for intravenous administration, is a sterile lyophilized formulation of two semisynthetic pristinamycin derivatives, quinupristin (derived from pristinamycin I) and dalfopristin (derived from pristinamycin IIA) in the ratio of 30:70 (w/w).

Quinupristin is a white to very slightly yellow, hygroscopic powder. It is a combination of three peptide macrolactones. The main component of quinupristin ( > 88.0%) has the following chemical name: N-[(6R,9S,10R,13S,15aS,18R,22S,24aS )-22-[p-(dimethylamino)benzyl]-6-ethyldocosahydro-10,23-dimethyl-5,8,12,15,17,21,24-heptaoxo-13-phenyl-18-[[(3S )-3-quinuclidinylthio] methyl]-12H-pyrido[2,1-f ]pyrrolo-[2,1-l ][1,4,7,10,13,16]oxapentaazacyclononadecin-9-yl]-3-hydroxypicolinamide.

The main component of quinupristin has an empirical formula of C53H67N9O10S, a molecular weight of 1022.24 and the following structural formula:

Quinupristin Structural Formula Illustration

Dalfopristin is a slightly yellow to yellow, hygroscopic, powder. The chemical name for dalfopristin is: (3R,4R,5E,10E,12E,14S,26R,26aS )-26-[[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]sulfonyl]-8,9,14,15,24,25,26,26a-octahydro-14-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-4,12-dimethyl-3H-21,18-nitrilo-1H,22H-pyrrolo[2,1-c ][1,8,4,19]-dioxadiazacyclotetracosine-1,7,16,22(4H,17H )-tetrone.

Dalfopristin has an empirical formula of C34H50N4O9S, a molecular weight of 690.85 and the following structural formula:

Dalfopristin Structural Formula Illustration

What are the possible side effects of dalfopristin and quinupristin (Synercid)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
  • jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
  • fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash;
  • confusion, seizure (convulsions);
  • feeling light-headed, fainting;
  • pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding, unusual...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Synercid »

What are the precautions when taking quinupristin and dalfopristin (Synercid)?

Before using quinupristin/dalfopristin, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other streptogramin antibiotics (e.g., pristinamycin, virginiamycin); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver problems, high levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia).

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is not known whether this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before...

Read All Potential Precautions of Synercid »

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/19/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

INDICATIONS

Synercid is indicated in adults for the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms.

Complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible) or Streptococcus pyogenes. (See Clinical Studies.)

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Synercid should be administered by intravenous infusion in 5% Dextrose in Water solution over a 60-minute period. (See WARNINGS.) An infusion pump or device may be used to control the rate of infusion. If necessary, central venous access (e.g., PICC) can be used to administer Synercid to decrease the incidence of venous irritation. The recommended dosage for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections is 7.5 mg/kg q12h. The minimum recommended treatment duration for complicated skin and skin structure infections is seven days.

Special Populations

Elderly: No dosage adjustment of Synercid is required for use in the elderly. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics and PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use.)

Renal Insufficiency: No dosage adjustment of Synercid is required for use in patients with renal impairment or patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics.)

Hepatic Insufficiency: Data from clinical trials of Synercid suggest that the incidence of adverse effects in patients with chronic liver insufficiency or cirrhosis was comparable to that in patients with normal hepatic function. Pharmacokinetic data in patients with hepatic cirrhosis (Child Pugh A or B) suggest that dosage reduction may be necessary but exact recommendations cannot be made at this time. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations and PRECAUTIONS: General: Hepatic Insufficiency sections.)

Pediatric Patients: The recommended dose of Synercid for pediatric patients (12 to < 18 years of age) is 7.5 mg/kg q12h. No dosing recommendations are available in pediatric patients less than 12 years of age. (See PRECAUTIONS: Pediatric Use.)

Preparation and administration of solution

  1. Reconstitute the 500 mg single dose vial by slowly adding 5 mL of 5% Dextrose in Water or Sterile Water for injection.
  2. GENTLY swirl the vial by manual rotation without shaking to ensure dissolution of contents while LIMITING FOAM FORMATION.
  3. Allow the solution to sit for a few minutes until all the foam has disappeared. The resulting solution should be clear. Vials reconstituted in this manner will give a solution of 100 mg/mL. CAUTION: FURTHER DILUTION REQUIRED BEFORE INFUSION.
  4. According to the patient's weight, the reconstituted Synercid solution should be added to 250 mL of 5% Dextrose solution. An infusion volume of 100 mL may be used for central line infusions.
  5. If moderate to severe venous irritation occurs following peripheral administration of Synercid diluted in 250 mL of Dextrose 5% in water, consideration should be given to increasing the infusion volume to 500 or 750 mL, changing the infusion site, or infusing by a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) or a central venous catheter.
  6. The desired dose should be administered by intravenous infusion over 60 minutes.

NOTE: As for other parenteral drug products, Synercid should be inspected visually for particulate matter prior to administration.

Compatibility

DO NOT DILUTE WITH SALINE SOLUTIONS BECAUSE SYNERCID IS NOT COMPATIBLE WITH THESE AGENTS. Synercid should not be mixed with, or physically added to, other drugs except for the following drugs where compatibility by Y-site injection has been established:

Y-Site Injection Compatibility of Synercid at 2 mg/mL Concentration
Admixture and Concentration IV Infusion Solutions for Admixture
Aztreonam 20 mg/mL D5W
Ciprofloxacin 1 mg/mL D5W
Fluconazole 2 mg/mL Used as the undiluted solution
Haloperidol 0.2 mg/mL D5W
Metoclopramide 5 mg/mL D5W
Potassium Chloride 40 mEq/L D5W
D5W = 5% Dextrose Injection  

If Synercid is to be given concomitantly with another drug, each drug should be given separately in accordance with the recommended dosage and route of administration for each drug.

With intermittent infusion of Synercid and other drugs through a common intravenous line, the line should be flushed before and after administration with 5% Dextrose in Water solution.

Stability and Storage

Before Reconstitution : The unopened vials should be stored in a refrigerator at 2 to 8°C (36 to 46°F).

Reconstituted and Infusions Solutions

Because Synercid contains no antibacterial preservative, it should be reconstituted under strict aseptic conditions (e.g., Laminar Air Flow Hood). The reconstituted solution should be diluted within 30 minutes. Vials are for single use. The storage time of the diluted solution should be as short as possible to minimize the risk of microbial contamination. Stability of the diluted solution prior to the infusion is established as 5 hours at room temperature or 54 hours if stored under refrigeration 2 to 8°C (36 to 46°F). The solution should not be frozen.

HOW SUPPLIED

Synercid is supplied as a sterile lyophilized pyrogen-free preparation in single-dose 10 mL type I glass vials with gray elastomeric closure, and aluminum seal with a dark blue flip-off cap for the 500 mg vial.

NDC 61570-260-10 Synercid IV 500 mg 150 mg quinupristin and 350 mg dalfopristin

Safety

Discontinuations of therapy because of adverse reactions which were probably or possibly due to drug therapy occurred more than four times as often in the Synercid group than in the comparator group. Approximately half of the discontinuations in the Synercid arm were due to venous adverse events. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS: Clinical Reactions: Skin and Skin Structure Studies.)

Keep out of the reach of children.

Distributed by: Monarch Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Bristol, TN 37620. Manufactured by: DSM Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Greenville, NC 27834 LAB-0591-2.0. Revised January 2012

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/19/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

SIDE EFFECTS

The safety of Synercid was evaluated in 1099 patients enrolled in 5 comparative clinical trials. Additionally, 4 non-comparative clinical trials (3 prospective and 1 retrospective in design) were conducted in which 1199 patients received Synercid for infections due to Gram-positive pathogens for which no other treatment option was available. In non-comparative trials, the patients were severely ill, often with multiple co-morbidities or physiological impairments, and may have been intolerant to or failed other antibacterial therapies.

Comparative Trials

Adverse Reaction Summary – All Comparative Studies

Safety data are available from five comparative clinical studies (n= 1099 Synercid; n= 1095 comparator). One of the deaths in the comparative studies was assessed as possibly related to Synercid. The most frequent reasons for discontinuation due to drug-related adverse reactions were as follows:

% of patients discontinuing therapy by reaction type

Type Synercid Comparator
Venous 9.2 2.0
Non-venous 9.6 4.3
-Rash 1.0 0.5
-Nausea 0.9 0.6
-Vomiting 0.5 0.5
-Pain 0.5 0.0
-Pruritus 0.5 0.3

Clinical Reactions – All Comparative Studies

Adverse reactions with an incidence of ≥ 1% and possibly or probably related to Synercid administration include:

Adverse Reactions % of patients with adverse reactions
Synercid Comparator
Inflammation at infusion site 42.0 25.0
Pain at infusion site 40.0 23.7
Edema at infusion site 17.3 9.5
Infusion site reaction 13.4 10.1
Nausea 4.6 7.2
Thrombophlebitis 2.4 0.3
Diarrhea 2.7 3.2
Vomiting 2.7 3.8
Rash 2.5 1.4
Headache 1.6 0.9
Pruritus 1.5 1.1
Pain 1.5 0.1

Additional adverse reactions that were possibly or probably related to Synercid with an incidence less than 1% within each body system are listed below:

Body as a Whole: abdominal pain, worsening of underlying illness, allergic reaction, chest pain, fever, infection;

Cardiovascular: palpitation, phlebitis;

Digestive: constipation, dyspepsia, oral moniliasis, pancreatitis, pseudomembranous enterocolitis, stomatitis;

Metabolic: gout, peripheral edema;

Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, myalgia, myasthenia;

Nervous: anxiety, confusion, dizziness, hypertonia, insomnia, leg cramps, paresthesia, vasodilation;

Respiratory: dyspnea, pleural effusion;

Skin and Appendages: maculopapular rash, sweating, urticaria;

Urogenital: hematuria, vaginitis

Clinical Reactions – Skin And Skin Structure Studies

In two of the five comparative clinical trials Synercid (n=450) and comparator regimens (e.g., oxacillin/vancomycin or cefazolin/vancomycin; n=443) were studied for safety and efficacy in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections. The adverse event profile seen in the Synercid patients in these two studies differed significantly from that seen in the other comparative studies. What follows is safety data from these two studies.

Discontinuation of therapy was most frequently due to the following drug related events:

Type % of patients discontinuing therapy by reaction type
Synercid Comparator
Venous 12.0 2.0
Non-venous 11.8 4.0
-Rash 2.0 0.9
-Nausea 1.1 0.0
-Vomiting 0.9 0.0
-Pain 0.9 0.0
-Pruritus 0.9 0.5

Venous adverse events were seen predominately in patients who had peripheral infusions. The most frequently reported venous and non-venous adverse reactions possibly or probably related to study drug were:

  % of patients with adverse reactions
Synercid Comparator
Venous 68.0 32.7
-Pain at infusion site 44.7 17.8
-Inflammation at infusion site 38.2 14.7
-Edema at infusion site 18.0 7.2
-Infusion site reaction 11.6 3.6
Non-venous 24.7 13.1
-Nausea 4.0 2.0
-Vomiting 3.7 1.0
-Rash 3.1 1.3
-Pain 3.1 0.2

There were eight (1.7%) episodes of thrombus or thrombophlebitis in the Synercid arms and none in the comparator arms.

Laboratory Events-All Comparative Studies

The following table shows the number (%) of patients exhibiting laboratory values above or below the clinically relevant “critical” values during treatment phase (with an incidence of 0.1% or greater in either treatment group).

Parameter Critically High or Low Value Synercid Critically High or Low Comparator Critically High or Low
AST > 10 x ULN 9 (0.9) 2 (0.2)
ALT > 10 x ULN 4 (0.4) 4 (0.4)
Total Bilirubin > 5 x ULN 9 (0.9) 2 (0.2)
Conjugated Bilirubin > 5 x ULN 29 (3.1) 12 (1.3)
LDH > 5 x ULN 10 (2.6) 8 (2.1)
Alk Phosphatase > 5 x ULN 3 (0.3) 7 (0.7)
Gamma-GT > 10 x ULN 19 (1.9) 10 (1.0)
CPK > 10 x ULN 6 (1.6) 5 (1.4)
Creatinine ≥ 440 μmoL/L 1 (0.1) 1 (0.1)
BUN ≥ 35.5 mmoL/L 2 (0.3) 9 (1.2)
Blood Glucose > 22.2 mmoL/L 11 (1.3) 11 (1.3)
  < 2.2 mmoL/L 1 (0.1) 1 (0.1)
Bicarbonates > 40 mmoL/L 2 (0.3) 3 (0.5)
  < 10 mmoL/L 3 (0.5) 3 (0.5)
CO2 > 50 mmoL/L 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  < 15 mmoL/L 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0)
Sodium > 160 mmoL/L 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  < 120 mmoL/L 5 (0.5) 3 (0.3)
Potassium > 6.0 mmoL/L 3 (0.3) 6 (0.6)
  < 2.0 mmoL/L 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1)
Hemoglobin < 8 g/dL 25 (2.6) 16 (1.6)
Hematocrit > 60% 2 (0.2) 0 (0.0)
Platelets > 1,000,000/mm³ 2 (0.2) 2 (0.2)
  < 50,000/mm³ 6 (0.6) 7 (0.7)

 

Non-Comparative Trials

Clinical Adverse Reactions

Approximately one-third of patients discontinued therapy in these trials due to adverse events. However, the discontinuation rate due to adverse reactions assessed by the investigator as possibly or probably related to Synercid therapy was approximately 5.0%.

There were three prospectively designed non-comparative clinical trials in patients (n = 972) treated with Synercid. One of these studies (301), had more complete documentation than the other two (398A and 398B). The most common events probably or possibly related to therapy were:

Adverse Reactions % of patients with adverse reaction
Study 301 Study 398A Study 398B
Arthralgia 7.8 5.2 4.3
Myalgia 5.1 0.95 3.1
Arthralgia and Myalgia 7.4 3.3 6.8
Nausea 3.8 2.8 4.9

The percentage of patients who experienced severe related arthralgia and myalgia was 3.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The percentage of patients who discontinued treatment due to related arthralgia and myalgia was 2.3% and 1.8%, respectively.

Laboratory Events

The most frequently observed abnormalities in laboratory studies were in total and conjugated bilirubin, with increases greater than 5 times upper limit of normal, irrespective of relationship to Synercid, reported in 25.0% and 34.6% of patients, respectively. The percentage of patients who discontinued treatment due to increased total and conjugated bilirubin was 2.7% and 2.3%, respectively. Of note, 46.5% and 59.0% of patients had high baseline total and conjugated bilirubin levels before study entry.

Other

Serious adverse reactions in clinical trials, including non-comparative studies, considered possibly or probably related to Synercid administration with an incidence < 0.1% include: acidosis, anaphylactoid reaction, apnea, arrhythmia, bone pain, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebrovascular accident, coagulation disorder, convulsion, dysautonomia, encephalopathy, grand mal convulsion, hemolysis, hemolytic anemia, heart arrest, hepatitis, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypoplastic anemia, hypoventilation, hypovolemia, hypoxia, jaundice, mesenteric arterial occlusion, neck rigidity, neuropathy, pancytopenia, paraplegia, pericardial effusion, pericarditis, respiratory distress syndrome, shock, skin ulcer, supraventricular tachycardia, syncope, tremor, ventricular extrasystoles and ventricular fibrillation. Cases of hypotension and gastrointestinal hemorrhage were reported in less than 0.2% of patients.

Post-marketing Experiences

In addition to adverse events reported from clinical trials, reports of angioedema and anaphylactic shock have been identified during post approval use of Synercid.

Read the Synercid (quinupristin and dalfopristin) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Iin vitro drug interaction studies have shown that Synercid significantly inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4. (See WARNINGS.)

Synercid does not significantly inhibit human cytochrome P450 1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, or 2E1. Therefore, clinical interactions with drugs metabolized by these cytochrome P450 isoenzymes are not expected.

A drug interaction between Synercid and digoxin cannot be excluded but is unlikely to occur via CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition. Synercid has shown in vitro activity (MICs of 0.25 mcg/mL when tested on two strains) against Eubacterium lentum. Digoxin is metabolized in part by bacteria in the gut and as such, a drug interaction based on Synercid's inhibition of digoxin's gut metabolism (by Eubacterium lentum) may be possible.

Iin vitro combination testing of Synercid with aztreonam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin, against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa did not show antagonism.

Iin vitro combination testing of Synercid with prototype drugs of the following classes: aminoglycosides (gentamicin),β-lactams (cefepime, ampicillin, and amoxicillin), glycopeptides (vancomycin), quinolones (ciprofloxacin), tetracyclines (doxycycline) and also chloramphenicol against enterococci and staphylococci did not show antagonism.

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/19/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

WARNINGS

Drug Interactions

Iin vitro drug interaction studies have demonstrated that Synercid significantly inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolism of cyclosporin A, midazolam, nifedipine and terfenadine. In addition, 24 subjects given Synercid 7.5 mg/kg q8h for 2 days and 300 mg of cyclosporine on day 3 showed an increase of 63% in the AUC of cyclosporine, an increase of 30% in the Cmax of cyclosporine, a 77% increase in the t½ of cyclosporine, and, a decrease of 34% in the clearance of cyclosporine. Therapeutic level monitoring of cyclosporine should be performed when cyclosporine must be used concomitantly with Synercid .

It is reasonable to expect that the concomitant administration of Synercid and other drugs primarily metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme system may likely result in increased plasma concentrations of these drugs that could increase or prolong their therapeutic effect and/or increase adverse reactions. (See Table below.) Therefore, coadministration of Synercid with drugs which are cytochrome P450 3A4 substrates and possess a narrow therapeutic window requires caution and monitoring of these drugs (e.g., cyclosporine), whenever possible. Concomitant medications metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme system that may prolong the QTc interval should be avoided.

Concomitant administration of Synercid and nifedipine (repeated oral doses) and midazolam (intravenous bolus dose) in healthy volunteers led to elevated plasma concentrations of these drugs. The Cmax increased by 18% and 14% (median values) and the AUC increased by 44% and 33% for nifedipine and midazolam, respectively.

Table of Selected Drugs That Are Predicted to Have Plasma Concentrations Increased by Synercid +

Antihistamines: astemizole, terfenadine

Anti-HIV (NNRTIs and Protease inhibitors): delavirdine, nevirapine, indinavir, ritonavir

Antineoplastic agents: vinca alkaloids (e.g., vinblastine), docetaxel, paclitaxel

Benzodiazepines: midazolam, diazepam

Calcium channel blockers: dihydropyridines (e.g., nifedipine), verapamil, diltiazem

Cholesterol-lowering agents: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (e.g., lovastatin)

GI motility agents: cisapride

Immunosuppressive agents: cyclosporine, tacrolimus

Steroids: methylprednisolone

Other: carbamazepine, quinidine, lidocaine, disopyramide

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Synercid, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

+ This list of drugs is not all inclusive.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Venous Irritation

Following completion of a peripheral infusion, the vein should be flushed with 5% Dextrose in Water solution to minimize venous irritation. DO NOT FLUSH with saline or heparin after Synercid administration because of incompatibility concerns.

If moderate to severe venous irritation occurs following peripheral administration of Synercid diluted in 250 mL of Dextrose 5% in water, consideration should be given to increasing the infusion volume to 500 or 750 mL, changing the infusion site, or infusing by a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) or a central venous catheter. In clinical trials, concomitant administration of hydrocortisone or diphenhydramine did not appear to alleviate venous pain or inflammation.

Rate of Infusion

In animal studies toxicity was higher when Synercid was administered as a bolus compared to slow infusion. However, the safety of an intravenous bolus of Synercid has not been studied in humans. Clinical trial experience has been exclusively with an intravenous duration of 60 minutes and, thus, other infusion rates cannot be recommended.

Arthralgias/Myalgias

Episodes of arthralgia and myalgia, some severe, have been reported in patients treated with Synercid. In some patients, improvement has been noted with a reduction in dose frequency to q12h. In those patients available for follow-up, treatment discontinuation has been followed by resolution of symptoms. The etiology of these myalgias and arthralgias is under investigation.

Superinfections

The use of antibiotics may promote the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Should superinfection occur during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.

Hyperbilirubinemia

Elevations of total bilirubin greater than 5 times the upper limit of normal were noted in approximately 25% of patients in the non-comparative studies. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS: Non-Comparative Trials.) In some patients, isolated hyperbilirubinemia (primarily conjugated) can occur during treatment, possibly resulting from competition between Synercid and bilirubin for excretion. Of note, in the comparative trials, elevations in ALT and AST occurred at a similar frequency in both the Synercid and comparator groups.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term carcinogenicity studies in animals have not been conducted with Synercid. Five genetic toxicity tests were performed. Synercid, dalfopristin, and quinupristin were tested in the bacterial reverse mutation assay, the Chinese hamster ovary cell HGPRT gene mutation assay, the unscheduled DNA synthesis assay in rat hepatocytes, the Chinese hamster ovary cell chromosome aberration assay, and the mouse micronucleus assay in bone marrow. Dalfopristin was associated with the production of structural chromosome aberrations when tested in the Chinese hamster ovary cell chromosome aberration assay. Synercid and quinupristin were negative in this assay. Synercid, dalfopristin, and quinupristin were all negative in the other four genetic toxicity assays.

No impairment of fertility or perinatal/postnatal development was observed in rats at doses up to 12 to 18 mg/kg (approximately 0.3 to 0.4 times the human dose based on body-surface area).

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category B : Reproductive studies have been performed in mice at doses up to 40 mg/kg/day (approximately half the human dose based on body-surface area), in rats at doses up to 120 mg/kg/day (approximately 2.5 times the human dose based on bodysurface area), and in rabbits at doses up to 12 mg/kg/day (approximately half the human dose based on body-surface area) and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Synercid.

There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies with Synercid in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of the human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

In lactating rats, Synercid was excreted in milk. It is not known whether Synercid is excreted in human breast milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Synercid is administered to a nursing woman.

Hepatic Insufficiency

Following a single 1-hour infusion of Synercid (7.5 mg/kg) to patients with hepatic insufficiency, plasma concentrations were significantly increased. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations.) However, the effect of dose reduction or increase in dosing interval on the pharmacokinetics of Synercid in these patients has not been studied. Therefore, no recommendations can be made at this time regarding the appropriate dose modification.

Pediatric Use

Synercid has been used in a limited number of pediatric patients under emergency-use conditions at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg q8h or q12h. However, the safety and effectiveness of Synercid in patients under 16 years of age have not been established.

Geriatric Use

In phase 3 comparative trials of Synercid, 37% of patients (n=404) were ≥ 65 years of age, of which 145 were ≥ 75 years of age. In the phase 3 non-comparative trials, 29% of patients (n=346) were ≥ 65 years of age, of which 112 were ≥ 75 years of age. There were no apparent differences in the frequency, type, or severity of related adverse reactions including cardiovascular events between elderly and younger individuals.

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/19/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OVERDOSE

There are four reports of patients receiving Synercid doses at up to three times that recommended (7.5 mg/kg). No adverse events were considered possibly or probably related to Synercid overdose. Signs of acute overdosage may include dyspnea, emesis, tremors, and ataxia as seen in animals given extremely high doses (50 mg/kg) of Synercid. Patients who receive an overdose should be carefully observed and given supportive treatment. Synercid is not removed by peritoneal dialysis or by hemodialysis.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Synercid is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to Synercid, or with prior hypersensitivity to other streptogramins (e.g., pristinamycin or virginiamycin).

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/19/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Pharmacokinetics

Quinupristin and dalfopristin are the main active components circulating in plasma in human subjects. Quinupristin and dalfopristin are converted to several active major metabolites: two conjugated metabolites for quinupristin (one with glutathione and one with cysteine) and one non-conjugated metabolite for dalfopristin (formed by drug hydrolysis).

Pharmacokinetic profiles of quinupristin and dalfopristin in combination with their metabolites were determined using a bioassay following multiple 60-minute infusions of Synercid in two groups of healthy young adult male volunteers. Each group received 7.5 mg/kg of Synercid intravenously q12h or q8h for a total of 9 or 10 doses, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters were proportional with q12h and q8h dosing; those of the q8h regimen are shown in the following table:

Mean Steady-State Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Quinupristin and Dalfopristin in Combination with their Metabolites (± SD1) (dose = 7.5 mg/kg q8h; n=10)

  Cmax2 (μg/mL) AUC3 (μg•h/mL) t ½4 (hr)
Quinupristin and metabolites 3.20 ± 0.67 7.20 ± 1.24 3.07 ± 0.51
Dalfopristin and metabolite 7.96 ± 1.30 10.57 ± 2.24 1.04 ± 0.20
1 SD= Standard Deviation
2 Cmax = Maximum drug plasma concentration
3 AUC = Area under the drug plasma concentration-time curve
4 t ½ = Half-life

The clearances of unchanged quinupristin and dalfopristin are similar (0.72 L/h/kg), and the steady-state volume of distribution for quinupristin is 0.45 L/kg and for dalfopristin is 0.24 L/kg.

The elimination half-life of quinupristin and dalfopristin is approximately 0.85 and 0.70 hours, respectively.

The total protein binding of quinupristin is higher than that of dalfopristin. Synercid does not alter the in vitro binding of warfarin to proteins in human serum.

Penetration of unchanged quinupristin and dalfopristin in noninflammatory blister fluid corresponds to about 19% and 11% of that estimated in plasma, respectively. The penetration into blister fluid of quinupristin and dalfopristin in combination with their major metabolites was in total approximately 40% compared to that in plasma.

In vitro, the transformation of the parent drugs into their major active metabolites occurs by nonenzymatic reactions and is not dependent on cytochrome-P450 or glutathione-transferase enzyme activities.

Synercid has been shown to be a major inhibitor (in vitro inhibits 70% cyclosporin A biotransformation at 10 μg/mL of Synercid) of the activity of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme. (See WARNINGS.)

Synercid can interfere with the metabolism of other drug products that are associated with QTc prolongation. However, electrophysiologic studies confirm that Synercid does not itself induce QTc prolongation. (See WARNINGS.)

Fecal excretion constitutes the main elimination route for both parent drugs and their metabolites (75 to 77% of dose). Urinary excretion accounts for approximately 15% of the quinupristin and 19% of the dalfopristin dose. Preclinical data in rats have demonstrated that approximately 80% of the dose is excreted in the bile and suggest that in man, biliary excretion is probably the principal route for fecal elimination.

Special Populations

Elderly: The pharmacokinetics of quinupristin and dalfopristin were studied in a population of elderly individuals (range 69 to 74 years). The pharmacokinetics of the drug products were not modified in these subjects.

Gender: The pharmacokinetics of quinupristin and dalfopristin are not modified by gender.

Renal Insufficiency: In patients with creatinine clearance 6 to 28 mL/min, the AUC of quinupristin and dalfopristin in combination with their major metabolites increased about 40% and 30%, respectively.

In patients undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis, dialysis clearance for quinupristin, dalfopristin and their metabolites is negligible. The plasma AUC of unchanged quinupristin and dalfopristin increased about 20% and 30%, respectively. The high molecular weight of both components of Synercid suggests that it is unlikely to be removed by hemodialysis.

Hepatic Insufficiency: In patients with hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pugh scores A and B), the terminal half-life of quinupristin and dalfopristin was not modified. However, the AUC of quinupristin and dalfopristin in combination with their major metabolites increased about 180% and 50%, respectively. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and PRECAUTIONS.)

Obesity (body mass index ≥ 30): In obese patients the Cmax and AUC of quinupristin increased about 30% and those of dalfopristin about 40%.

Pediatric Patients: The pharmacokinetics of Synercid in patients less than 16 years of age have not been studied.

Microbiology

The streptogramin components of Synercid, quinupristin and dalfopristin, are present in a ratio of 30 parts quinupristin to 70 parts dalfopristin. These two components act synergistically so that Synercid's microbiologic in vitro activity is greater than that of the components individually.

Quinupristin's and dalfopristin's metabolites also contribute to the antimicrobial activity of Synercid. Iin vitro synergism of the major metabolites with the complementary parent compound has been demonstrated.

Mechanism of Action

The site of action of quinupristin and dalfopristin is the bacterial ribosome. Dalfopristin has been shown to inhibit the early phase of protein synthesis while quinupristin inhibits the late phase of protein synthesis. Synercid is bactericidal against isolates of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The mode of action of Synercid differs from that of other classes of antibacterial agents such as β-lactams, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides, quinolones, macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines. Therefore, there is no cross resistance between Synercid and these agents when tested by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method.

Mechanism of Resistance

Resistance to Synercid is associated with resistance to both components (i.e., quinupristin and dalfopristin). In non-comparative studies, emerging resistance to Synercid has occurred.

Interaction with other Antibacterials

Iin vitro combination testing of Synercid with aztreonam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa did not show antagonism.

Iin vitro combination testing of Synercid with prototype drugs of the following classes: aminoglycosides (gentamicin),β-lactams (cefepime, ampicillin, and amoxicillin), glycopeptides (vancomycin), quinolones (ciprofloxacin), tetracyclines (doxycycline) and also chloramphenicol against enterococci and staphylococci did not show antagonism.

Synercid has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria, both in vitro and in clinical infections, as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.

Gram-positive bacteria

Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates only)
Streptococcus pyogenes

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown.

The combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin (Synercid) exhibits in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's) of ≤ 1.0 μg/mL against most ( ≥ 90%) isolates of the following microorganisms; however, the safety and effectiveness of Synercid in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria have not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

Gram-positive bacteria

Corynebacterium jeikeium
Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-resistant isolates)
Staphylococcus epidermidis (including methicillin-resistant isolates)
Streptococcus agalactiae

Susceptibility Test Methods

Dilution Techniques

Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution1 method (broth or agar) or equivalent using standardized inoculum concentrations, and standardized concentrations of quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid) in a 30:70 ratio made from powder of known potency. The MIC values are interpreted according to the following criteria:

For Susceptibility Testing of Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes (excluding Streptococcus pneumoniae)a.

MIC (μg/mL) Interpretation
≤ 1.0 Susceptible (S)
2 Intermediate (I)
≥ 4.0 Resistant (R)

aThe interpretive values for Streptococcus pyogenes are applicable only to broth microdilution susceptibility testing using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with 2 to 5% lysed horse blood.

A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the concentration of the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches usually achievable levels. A report of “Intermediate” indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and if the bacterium is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category provides a buffer zone which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of “Resistant” indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.

Quality Control

A standardized susceptibility test procedure requires the use of laboratory control bacteria to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. Standard quinupristin/dalfopristin powder in a 30:70 ratio should provide the following MIC values with the indicated quality control strains:

Microorganisms (ATCC ® #) MIC (μg/mL)
Staphylococcus aureus (29213) 0.25 to 1.0
Streptococcus pneumoniae (49619)1 a 0.25 to 1.0
1 The interpretive values for Streptococcus pyogenes are applicable only to tests performed using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood when incubated in 5% CO2.
a Streptococcus pneumoniae is used when testing Streptococcus pyogenes.

Diffusion Techniques

Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure1 requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 15 μg quinupristin/dalfopristin in a ratio of 30:70 (Synercid) to test the susceptibility of bacteria to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 15 μg quinupristin/dalfopristin disk are interpreted according to the following criteria:

For Susceptibility Testing of Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes (excluding Streptococcus pneumoniae)b.

Zone Diameter (mm) Interpretation
≥ 19 Susceptible (S)
16 to 18 Intermediate (I)
≤ 15 Resistant (R)

bThe zone diameter for Streptococcus pyogenes are applicable only to tests performed using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood when incubated in 5% CO2.

Interpretation should be as stated above for results using dilution techniques. Interpretation involves correlation of the diameter obtained in the disk test with the MIC for quinupristin/dalfopristin.

Quality Control

As with standardized dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control bacteria that are used to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. For the diffusion technique, the 15 μg quinupristin/dalfopristin (30:70 ratio) disk should provide the following zone diameter with the indicated quality control strain.

Microorganism (ATCC® #) Zone Diameter Range (mm)
Staphylococcus aureus (25923) 21 to 28
Streptococcus pneumoniae (49619)1 a 19 to 24
1 The zone diameter for Streptococcus pyogenes are applicable only to tests performed using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood when incubated in 5% CO2.
a Streptococcus pneumoniae is used when testing Streptococcus pyogenes.

Clinical Studies

Comparative Trials

Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections

Two randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trials of Synercid (7.5 mg/kg q12h intravenously [iv]) in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections were performed. The comparator drug was oxacillin (2g q6h iv) in the first study (JRV 304) and cefazolin (1g q8h iv) in the second study (JRV 305); however, in both studies vancomycin (1g q12h iv) could be substituted for the specified comparator if the causative pathogen was suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant staphylococcus or if the patient was allergic to penicillins, cephalosporins or carbapenems. Study JRV 304 enrolled 450 patients (n = 229 Synercid; n= 221 Comparator) and Study JRV 305 enrolled 443 patients (n = 221 Synercid; n = 222 Comparator).

In the first study, 105 patients (45.9%) and 106 patients (48.0%) in the Synercid and Comparator arms, respectively, were found to be clinically evaluable. For the second study, these values were 113 (51.1%) and 120 (54.1%) patients in the Synercid and Comparator arms, respectively. Patients were found not to be clinically evaluable for reasons such as: wrong diagnosis, lower extremity infection in patients with diabetes or peripheral vascular disease since these infections were assumed to include aerobic gram-negative and anaerobic organisms, no specimen for culture obtained, insufficient therapy, no test of cure assessment, etc.

For the patients found to be clinically evaluable, in Study JRV 304 the success rate was 49.5% in the Synercid arm and 51.9% in the Comparator arm. In Study JRV 305, the success rates were 66.4% and 64.2% in the Synercid and Comparator arms, respectively.

The following table shows the clinical success rate (combined results from two clinical trials) in the clinically evaluable population. Due to the small numbers of patients in the subsets, statistical conclusions could not be reached.

Infection Type Cured or Improved
Synercid Comparator
(n/N) (%) (n/N) (%)
Erysipelas (cellulitis) 52/82 (63.4) 43/77 (55.8)
Post-operative infections 14/38 (36.8) 24/42 (57.1)
Traumatic wound infection 33/55 (60.0) 33/55 (60.0)

REFERENCES

1. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing. CLSI document M100-S22. CLSI, 950 West Valley Rd., Suite 2500, Wayne, PA 19807, 2012.

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/19/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

PATIENT INFORMATION

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/19/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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PATIENT INFORMATION

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/19/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Disclaimer

Synercid Consumer

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

QUINUPRISTIN/DALFOPRISTIN - INJECTION

(KWIN-ue-PRIS-tin/DAL-foe-PRIS-tin)

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Synercid

USES: This medication is a combination of 2 antibiotics. It is used to treat certain serious bacterial infections that have not responded to treatment with other antibiotics (resistant infections). This medication belongs to the class of antibiotics called streptogramins. Quinupristin/dalfopristin works by stopping the growth of bacteria.

HOW TO USE: This medication is given by injection into a vein as directed by your doctor, usually 2 to 3 times daily. It should be injected slowly over 1 hour. The dosage is based on your medical condition, body weight, and response to treatment.

If you are giving this medication to yourself at home, learn all preparation and usage instructions from your health care professional. Before using, check this product visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the liquid. Learn how to store and discard medical supplies safely.

Antibiotics work best when the amount of the medicine in your body is kept at a constant level. Therefore, use this drug at evenly spaced intervals.

Continue to use this medication for the full time prescribed, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping the medication too early may allow bacteria to continue to grow, which may result in a return of the infection.

Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.

Disclaimer

Synercid Consumer (continued)

SIDE EFFECTS: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if you develop redness/swelling/pain/warming of the skin at the injection site. Flushing the IV line after each dose of this medication with dextrose 5 percent in water solution as directed will reduce the risk of vein irritation.

Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: joint/muscle pain, yellowing eyes/skin, blood in the urine.

Get medical help right away if you experience this rare but very serious side effect: chest pain.

This medication may rarely cause a severe intestinal condition (Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea) due to a type of resistant bacteria. This condition may occur during treatment or weeks to months after treatment has stopped. Do not use anti-diarrhea products or narcotic pain medications if you have any of the following symptoms because these products may make them worse. Tell your doctor immediately if you develop: persistent diarrhea, abdominal or stomach pain/cramping, blood/mucus in your stool.

Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in oral thrush or a new vaginal yeast infection. Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth, a change in vaginal discharge, or other new symptoms.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Read the Synercid (quinupristin and dalfopristin) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

PRECAUTIONS: Before using quinupristin/dalfopristin, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other streptogramin antibiotics (e.g., pristinamycin, virginiamycin); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver problems, high levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia).

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is not known whether this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Disclaimer

Synercid Consumer (continued)

DRUG INTERACTIONS: See also How to Use.

Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

Some products that may interact with this drug include: digoxin.

This drug can slow down the removal of certain medications from your body by affecting certain liver enzymes. These affected drugs include those that may affect the heart rhythm (QTc prolongation in the EKG), infrequently resulting in serious (rarely fatal) irregular heartbeat. Quinupristin/dalfopristin should not be used with the following medications because very serious interactions may occur: certain antiarrhythmic drugs (e.g., amiodarone, disopyramide, quinidine), cisapride, certain macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin, clarithromycin), certain antipsychotics (e.g., haloperidol, pimozide).

If you are currently using any of these medications listed above, tell your doctor or pharmacist before starting quinupristin/dalfopristin.

This drug can also slow down the removal of other drugs from your body by affecting certain liver enzymes. Before taking quinupristin/dalfopristin, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking any of the following medications: certain drugs to suppress the immune system (e.g., cyclosporine, sirolimus, tacrolimus), certain drugs to treat HIV (e.g., delavirdine, indinavir, nevirapine, ritonavir), certain anti-cancer drugs (e.g., docetaxel, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine), calcium channel blockers (e.g., diltiazem, nifedipine, verapamil), certain "statin" drugs to lower cholesterol (e.g., atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin), certain benzodiazepines (e.g., diazepam, midazolam), carbamazepine, corticosteroids (e.g., methylprednisolone), drugs to treat erectile dysfunction (e.g., sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil).

Although most antibiotics probably do not affect hormonal birth control such as pills, patch, or ring, some antibiotics may decrease their effectiveness. This could cause pregnancy. Examples include rifamycins such as rifampin or rifabutin. Be sure to ask your doctor or pharmacist if you should use additional reliable birth control methods while using this antibiotic.

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call the US National Poison Hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

NOTES: Laboratory and/or medical tests (e.g., liver function tests) should be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

MISSED DOSE: For the best possible benefit, it is important to receive each scheduled dose of this medication as directed. If you miss a dose, contact your doctor or pharmacist immediately to establish a new dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

STORAGE: Consult the product instructions and your pharmacist for storage details. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

Information last revised March 2012. Copyright(c) 2012 First Databank, Inc.

Synercid Patient Information Including Side Effects

Brand Names: Synercid

Generic Name: dalfopristin and quinupristin (Pronunciation: dal FOE pris tin and kwi NYOO pris tin)

What is dalfopristin and quinupristin (Synercid)?

Dalfopristin and quinupristin is a combination antibiotic that fights severe or life-threatening infection caused by bacteria.

Dalfopristin and quinupristin is used to treat severe infections in the blood and other body systems.

Dalfopristin and quinupristin may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What are the possible side effects of dalfopristin and quinupristin (Synercid)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
  • jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
  • fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash;
  • confusion, seizure (convulsions);
  • feeling light-headed, fainting;
  • pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding, unusual weakness; or
  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • joint or muscle pain;
  • mild skin rash or itching;
  • nausea, vomiting, constipation;
  • headache, dizziness;
  • sleep problems (insomnia);
  • vaginal itching or discharge; or
  • pain, swelling, or irritation where the IV needle is placed.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Synercid (quinupristin and dalfopristin) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

What is the most important information I should know about dalfopristin and quinupristin (Synercid)?

You should not receive this medication if you are allergic to dalfopristin and quinupristin.

Before receiving dalfopristin and quinupristin, tell your doctor if you have liver or kidney disease, or a history of any type of allergy.

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or has blood in it, call your doctor. Do not use any medicine to stop the diarrhea unless your doctor has told you to.

Side Effects Centers

Synercid Patient Information including How Should I Take

What should I discuss with my health care provider before receiving dalfopristin and quinupristin (Synercid)?

You should not receive this medication if you are allergic to dalfopristin and quinupristin.

If you have certain conditions, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely receive this medication. Before you receive dalfopristin and quinupristin, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs, or if you have:

  • liver disease;
  • kidney disease; or
  • a history of any type of allergy.

FDA pregnancy category B. This medication is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.

It is not known whether dalfopristin and quinupristin passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not receive this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How is dalfopristin and quinupristin given (Synercid)?

Dalfopristin and quinupristin is given as an injection through a needle placed into a vein. Your doctor, nurse, or other healthcare provider will give you this injection.

Dalfopristin and quinupristin is most often given in a hospital setting. The medicine must be given slowly through an IV infusion, and can take up to 1 hour or longer to complete.

Dalfopristin and quinupristin is usually given for at least 7 days, or longer for more severe infections.

Side Effects Centers

Synercid Patient Information including If I Miss a Dose

What happens if I miss a dose (Synercid)?

Since this medicine is usually given in a hospital, it is not likely that you will miss a dose.

What happens if I overdose (Synercid)?

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine.

Overdose can cause vomiting, trouble breathing, tremors, shaking, and loss of balance or coordination.

What should I avoid while taking dalfopristin and quinupristin (Synercid)?

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or has blood in it, call your doctor. Do not use any medicine to stop the diarrhea unless your doctor has told you to.

What other drugs will affect dalfopristin and quinupristin (Synercid)?

Before receiving dalfopristin and quinupristin, tell your doctor if you are using any of the following drugs:

  • cisapride (Propulsid);
  • digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin);
  • diazepam (Valium) or midazolam (Versed);
  • methylprednisolone (Medrol, Duralone, Medipred, and others);
  • cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune), tacrolimus (Prograf);
  • cancer medications such as vinblastine (Velban), vincristine (Oncovin), vinorelbine (Navelbine), docetaxel (Taxotere), paclitaxel (Taxol);
  • a calcium channel blocker such as diltiazem (Cartia, Cardizem), felodipine (Plendil), nifedipine (Nifedical, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan), and others;
  • HIV or AIDS medications such as delavirdine (Rescriptor), indinavir (Crixivan), nevirapine (Viramune), or ritonavir (Norvir); or
  • heart rhythm medications such as disopyramide (Norpace), lidocaine, or quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex).

This list is not complete and there may be other drugs that can interact with dalfopristin and quinupristin. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you use. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your doctor or pharmacist can provide more information about dalfopristin and quinupristin.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 3.04. Revision date: 12/15/2010.

Your use of the content provided in this service indicates that you have read,understood and agree to the End-User License Agreement,which can be accessed by clicking on this link.

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Side Effects Centers

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