Tobramycin and Dexamethasone (Tobradex)
برای این دارو، اطلاعات عمومی (فارسی) یافت نشد . برای افزودن اطلاعات فارسی به این دارو کلیک نمایید.
Tobramycin and Dexamethasone (Tobradex)

TobraDex®
(tobramycin and dexamethasone) Ophthalmic Suspension Sterile

DRUG DESCRIPTION

TOBRADEX®(tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension) is a sterile, multiple dose antibiotic and steroid combination for topical ophthalmic use.

The chemical structures for tobramycin and dexamethasone are presented below:

Tobramycin Structural Formula Illustration

Tobramycin

Empirical Formula: C18H37N5O9
Chemical Name: O-3-Amino-3-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-O-[2,6-diamino-2,3,6-trideoxy-α-D-ribo-hexopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-2-deoxy-L-streptamine

Dexamethasone Structural Formula Illustration

Dexamethasone

Empirical Formula :C22H29FO5
Chemical Name: 9-Fluoro-11β,17,21-trihydroxy-16α-methylpregna-1,4-diene- 3,20-dione

Each mL of TOBRADEX® (tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension) contains: Actives: tobramycin 0.3% (3 mg) and dexamethasone 0.1% (1 mg). Preservative: benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Inactives: tyloxapol, edetate disodium, sodium chloride, hydroxyethyl cellulose, sodium sulfate, sulfuric acid and/or sodium hydroxide (to adjust pH) and purified water.

What are the possible side effects of tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic (Tobradex)?

Serious side effects are not expected to occur with the use of this medication.

Some burning, stinging, irritation, itching, redness, blurred vision, eyelid itching, eyelid swelling, or sensitivity to light may occur.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Tobradex »

What are the precautions when taking tobramycin and dexamethasone (Tobradex)?

Before using tobramycin with dexamethasone, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to either drug; or to other aminoglycoside antibiotics (e.g., gentamicin); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients (such as preservatives like benzalkonium chloride), which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: other eye problems (e.g., glaucoma).

Your vision may be temporarily unstable after applying this drug. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires clear vision until you are sure you can perform such activities safely.

This medication should be used only when...

Read All Potential Precautions of Tobradex »

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/16/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

INDICATIONS

TOBRADEX® (tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension) is indicated for steroid-responsive inflammatory ocular conditions for which a corticosteroid is indicated and where superficial bacterial ocular infection or a risk of bacterial ocular infection exists.

Ocular steroids are indicated in inflammatory conditions of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea and anterior segment of the globe where the inherent risk of steroid use in certain infective conjunctivitides is accepted to obtain a diminution in edema and inflammation. They are also indicated in chronic anterior uveitis and corneal injury from chemical, radiation or thermal burns, or penetration of foreign bodies.

The use of a combination drug with an anti-infective component is indicated where the risk of superficial ocular infection is high or where there is an expectation that potentially dangerous numbers of bacteria will be present in the eye.

The particular anti-infective drug in this product is active against the following common bacterial eye pathogens:

Staphylococci, including S. aureus and S. epidermidis (coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative), including penicillin-resistant strains.

Streptococci, including some of the Group A-beta-hemolytic species, some nonhemolytic species, and some Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, most Proteus vulgaris strains, Haemophilus influenzae and H. aegyptius, Moraxella lacunata, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and some Neisseria species.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

One or two drops instilled into the conjunctival sac(s) every four to six hours. During the initial 24 to 48 hours, the dosage may be increased to one or two drops every two (2) hours. Frequency should be decreased gradually as warranted by improvement in clinical signs. Care should be taken not to discontinue therapy prematurely.

Not more than 20 mL should be prescribed initially and the prescription should not be refilled without further evaluation as outlined in PRECAUTIONS above.

HOW SUPPLIED

Sterile ophthalmic suspension in 2.5 mL (NDC 0065-0647-25), 5 mL (NDC 0065-0647-05) and 10 mL (NDC 0065-0647-10) DROP-TAINER®dispensers.

Storage

Store at 8°-27°C (46°-80°F).

Store suspension upright and shake well before using.

Alcon Laboratories, Inc. Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA. Revised: April 2010.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/16/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

SIDE EFFECTS

Adverse reactions have occurred with steroid/anti-infective combination drugs which can be attributed to the steroid component, the anti-infective component, or the combination. Exact incidence figures are not available. The most frequent adverse reactions to topical ocular tobramycin [TOBREX®(tobramycin ophthalmic solution)] are hypersensitivity and localized ocular toxicity, including lid itching and swelling, and conjunctival erythema. These reactions occur in less than 4% of patients. Similar reactions may occur with the topical use of other aminoglycoside antibiotics. Other adverse reactions have not been reported; however, if topical ocular tobramycin is administered concomitantly with systemic aminoglycoside antibiotics, care should be taken to monitor the total serum concentration. The reactions due to the steroid component are: elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) with possible development of glaucoma, and infrequent optic nerve damage; posterior subcapsular cataract formation; and delayed wound healing.

Secondary Infection

The development of secondary infection has occurred after use of combinations containing steroids and antimicrobials. Fungal infections of the cornea are particularly prone to develop coincidentally with long-term applications of steroids. The possibility of fungal invasion must be considered in any persistent corneal ulceration where steroid treatment has been used. Secondary bacterial ocular infection following suppression of host responses also occurs.

Read the Tobradex (tobramycin and dexamethasone) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

DRUG INTERACTIONS

No information provided.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/16/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

WARNINGS

FOR TOPICAL OPHTHALMIC USE ONLY. NOT FOR INJECTION INTO THE EYE. Sensitivity to topically applied aminoglycosides may occur in some patients. If a sensitivity reaction does occur, discontinue use.

Prolonged use of steroids may result in glaucoma, with damage to the optic nerve, defects in visual acuity and fields of vision, and posterior subcapsular cataract formation. Intraocular pressure should be routinely monitored even though it may be difficult in pediatric patients and uncooperative patients. Prolonged use may suppress the host response and thus increase the hazard of secondary ocular infections. In those diseases causing thinning of the cornea or sclera, perforations have been known to occur with the use of topical steroids. In acute purulent conditions of the eye, steroids may mask infection or enhance existing infection.

PRECAUTIONS

General

The possibility of fungal infections of the cornea should be considered after long-term steroid dosing. As with other antibiotic preparations, prolonged use may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, appropriate therapy should be initiated. When multiple prescriptions are required, or whenever clinical judgement dictates, the patient should be examined with the aid of magnification, such as slit lamp biomicroscopy and, where appropriate, fluorescein staining.

Cross-sensitivity to other aminoglycoside antibiotics may occur; if hypersensitivity develops with this product, discontinue use and institute appropriate therapy.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No studies have been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic or mutagenic potential. No impairment of fertility was noted in studies of subcutaneous tobramycin in rats at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg/day.

Pregnancy Category C

Corticosteroids have been found to be teratogenic in animal studies. Ocular administration of 0.1% dexamethasone resulted in 15.6% and 32.3% incidence of fetal anomalies in two groups of pregnant rabbits. Fetal growth retardation and increased mortality rates have been observed in rats with chronic dexamethasone therapy. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits with tobramycin at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day parenterally and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus. There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. TOBRADEX®(tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension) should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers

Systemically administered corticosteroids appear in human milk and could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other untoward effects. It is not known whether topical administration of corticosteroids could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when TOBRADEX®(tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension) is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 2 years have not been established.

Geriatric Use

No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger patients.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/16/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OVERDOSE

Clinically apparent signs and symptoms of an overdosage of TOBRADEX® (tobramycin and dexamethasone) (tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension) punctate keratitis, erythema, increased lacrimation, edema and lid itching may be similar to adverse reaction effects seen in some patients.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Epithelial herpes simplex keratitis (dendritic keratitis), vaccinia, varicella, and many other viral diseases of the cornea and conjunctiva. Mycobacterial infection of the eye. Fungal diseases of ocular structures. Hypersensitivity to a component of the medication.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/16/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Corticoids suppress the inflammatory response to a variety of agents and they probably delay or slow healing. Since corticoids may inhibit the body's defense mechanism against infection, a concomitant antimicrobial drug may be used when this inhibition is considered to be clinically significant. Dexamethasone is a potent corticoid.

The antibiotic component in the combination (tobramycin) is included to provide action against susceptible organisms. In vitro studies have demonstrated that tobramycin is active against susceptible strains of the following microorganisms:

Staphylococci, including S. aureus and S. epidermidis (coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative), including penicillin-resistant strains.

Streptococci, including some of the Group A-beta-hemolytic species, some nonhemolytic species, and some Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, most Proteus vulgaris strains, Haemophilus influenzae and H. aegyptius, Moraxella lacunata, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and some Neisseria species.

Bacterial susceptibility studies demonstrate that in some cases microorganisms resistant to gentamicin remain susceptible to tobramycin.

No data are available on the extent of systemic absorption from TOBRADEX® (tobramycin and dexamethasone) (tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension); however, it is known that some systemic absorption can occur with ocularly applied drugs. If the maximum dose of TOBRADEX® (tobramycin and dexamethasone) (tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension) is given for the first 48 hours (two drops in each eye every 2 hours) and complete systemic absorption occurs, which is highly unlikely, the daily dose of dexamethasone would be 2.4 mg. The usual physiologic replacement dose is 0.75 mg daily. If TOBRADEX® (tobramycin and dexamethasone) (tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension) is given after the first 48 hours as two drops in each eye every 4 hours, the administered dose of dexamethasone would be 1.2 mg daily.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/16/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

PATIENT INFORMATION

Do not touch dropper tip to any surface, as this may contaminate the contents. Contact lenses should not be worn during the use of this product.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/16/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

>

PATIENT INFORMATION

Do not touch dropper tip to any surface, as this may contaminate the contents. Contact lenses should not be worn during the use of this product.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/16/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Disclaimer

Tobradex Consumer

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

TOBRAMYCIN/DEXAMETHASONE SUSPENSION - OPHTHALMIC

(TOE-bra-MYE-sin/dex-uh-METH-uh-sown)

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Tobradex, Tobradex ST

USES: This medication is used to treat or prevent eye infections. This medication contains two drugs. Tobramycin belongs to a class of drugs called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Dexamethasone belongs to a class of drugs called corticosteroids. It works by reducing swelling.

This medication treats/prevents only bacterial eye infections. It will not work for other types of eye infections. Unnecessary use or overuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.

HOW TO USE: To apply eye drops, wash your hands first. To avoid contamination, do not touch the dropper tip or let it touch your eye or any other surface. Shake the bottle well before each dose.

Do not wear contact lenses while you are using this medicine. Sterilize contact lenses according to manufacturer's directions and check with your doctor before you begin using them again.

Tilt your head back, look upward, and pull down the lower eyelid to make a pouch. Hold the dropper directly over your eye and place one drop into the pouch. Look downward and gently close your eyes for 1 to 2 minutes. Place one finger at the corner of your eye (near the nose) and apply gentle pressure. This will prevent the medication from draining out. Try not to blink and do not rub your eye. Repeat these steps for your other eye if so directed, and if your dose is for more than 1 drop. Your dosage is based on your medical condition and response to therapy.

Do not rinse the dropper. Replace the dropper cap after each use.

If you are using another kind of eye medication (e.g., drops or ointments), wait at least 5 to 10 minutes before applying other medications. Use eye drops before eye ointments to allow the eye drops to enter the eye.

Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same times each day. Continue to use this medication for the full time prescribed, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping the medication too early may allow bacteria to continue to grow, which may result in a relapse of the infection.

Inform your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.

Disclaimer

Tobradex Consumer (continued)

SIDE EFFECTS: Eye redness, eye discomfort, and eyelid itching/swelling may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Use of this medication for prolonged/repeated periods may result in a new fungal eye infection and may increase your risk for other eye problems (e.g., glaucoma, cataracts). Do not use this medication for longer than prescribed. Tell your doctor immediately if you notice any of the following: new or worsening eye symptoms (e.g., discharge, swelling), vision changes, eye pain.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is unlikely, but seek immediate medical attention if it occurs. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction may include: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Read the Tobradex (tobramycin and dexamethasone) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

PRECAUTIONS: Before using tobramycin with dexamethasone, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to either drug; or to other aminoglycoside antibiotics (e.g., gentamicin); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients (such as preservatives like benzalkonium chloride), which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: other eye problems (e.g., glaucoma).

Your vision may be temporarily unstable after applying this drug. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires clear vision until you are sure you can perform such activities safely.

This medication should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is not known if this medication passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Disclaimer

Tobradex Consumer (continued)

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Your healthcare professionals (e.g., doctor or pharmacist) may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for it. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with them first.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and nonprescription/herbal products you may use.

Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist.

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call the US national poison hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canadian residents should call their local poison control center directly. This medicine may be harmful if swallowed.

NOTES: Do not share this medication with others.

This medication has been prescribed for your current condition only. Throw away the unused portion after therapy is completed. Do not use it later for another infection or give it to someone else. A different medication may be necessary in those cases.

If you are using this medication for more than 10 days, laboratory and/or medical tests (e.g., eye exams) should be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

STORAGE: Store the bottle upright in the refrigerator or at room temperature away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

Information last revised August 2010. Copyright(c) 2010 First Databank, Inc.

Tobradex Patient Information Including Side Effects

Brand Names: Tobradex

Generic Name: tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic (Pronunciation: TOE bra MYE sin and DEX a METH a sone off THAL mik)

What is tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic (Tobradex)?

Tobramycin is an antibiotic. It is used to treat bacterial infections.

Dexamethasone is a steroid. Dexamethasone ophthalmic is used to treat the swelling associated with bacterial infections of the eye.

Tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic is used to treat bacterial infections of the eyes.

Tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.

Tobradex Oint

Tobradex Susp

What are the possible side effects of tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic (Tobradex)?

Serious side effects are not expected to occur with the use of this medication.

Some burning, stinging, irritation, itching, redness, blurred vision, eyelid itching, eyelid swelling, or sensitivity to light may occur.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Tobradex (tobramycin and dexamethasone) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

What is the most important information I should know about tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic (Tobradex)?

Contact your doctor if the symptoms begin to get worse or if you do not see any improvement in the condition after a few days.

Do not touch the dropper or tube opening to any surface, including your eyes or hands. The dropper or tube opening is sterile. If it becomes contaminated, it could cause an infection in the eye.

Apply light pressure to the inside corner of your eye (near your nose) after each drop to prevent the fluid from draining down your tear duct.

Side Effects Centers

Tobradex Patient Information including How Should I Take

What should I discuss with my doctor before using tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic (Tobradex)?

Do not use tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic if you have a viral or fungal infection in the eye. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria only.

It is not known whether tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic will be harmful to an unborn baby. Do not use this medication without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant.

It is not known whether tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic passes into breast milk. Do not use this medication without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I use tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic (Tobradex)?

Use tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic eye drops or ointment exactly as directed by your doctor. If you do not understand these directions, ask your pharmacist, nurse, or doctor to explain them to you.

Wash your hands before and after using the eye drops or ointment.

To apply the eye drops:

  • Shake the drops gently to be sure the medicine is well mixed. Tilt your head back slightly and pull down on your lower eyelid. Position the dropper above your eye. Look up and away from the dropper. Squeeze out a drop and close your eye. Apply gentle pressure to the inside corner of your eye (near your nose) for about 1 minute to prevent the liquid from draining down your tear duct. If you are using more than one drop in the same eye, repeat the process with about 5 minutes between drops. If you are using drops in both eyes, repeat the process in the other eye.

To apply the ointment:

  • Hold the tube in your hand for a few minutes to warm it up so that the ointment comes out easily. Tilt your head back slightly and pull down gently on your lower eyelid. Apply a thin film of the ointment into your lower eyelid. Close your eye and roll your eyeball around in all directions for 1 to 2 minutes. If you are applying another eye medication, allow at least 10 minutes before application of the other medication.

Do not touch the dropper or tube opening to any surface, including your eyes or hands. The dropper or tube opening is sterile. If it becomes contaminated, it could cause an infection in the eye.

Do not use any eyedrop that is discolored or has particles in it.

Store tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep the bottle or tube properly capped.

Side Effects Centers

Tobradex Patient Information including If I Miss a Dose

What happens if I miss a dose (Tobradex)?

Apply the missed dose as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for the next regularly scheduled dose, skip the missed dose and apply the next one as directed. Do not use a double dose of this medication.

What happens if I overdose (Tobradex)?

An overdose of this medication is unlikely to occur. If you do suspect an overdose or if the medication has been ingested, contact an emergency room or poison control center for advice.

What should I avoid while using tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic (Tobradex)?

Do not touch the dropper or tube opening to any surface, including your eyes or hands. The dropper or tube opening is sterile. If it becomes contaminated, it could cause an infection in the eye.

Use caution when driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous activities. Tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic may cause blurred vision. If you experience blurred vision, avoid these activities.

If you wear contact lenses, ask your doctor if you should wear them during treatment with tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic. After applying the medication, wait at least 15 minutes before inserting contact lenses, unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

Do not use other eye drops or medications during treatment with tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

What other drugs will affect tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic (Tobradex)?

Do not use other eye drops or medications during treatment with tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor if you are taking an oral steroid medication such as prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone, others).

Drugs other than those listed here may also interact with tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic. Talk to your doctor and pharmacist before taking any prescription or over-the-counter medicines, including herbal products.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist has additional information about tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic written for health professionals that you may read.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 5.03. Revision date: 12/15/2010.

Your use of the content provided in this service indicates that you have read,understood and agree to the End-User License Agreement,which can be accessed by clicking on this link.

Healthwise

Side Effects Centers

توزیع کنندگان این دارو
شرکت های تولید کننده یا وارد کننده دارو

دارونـــما
نوآوری برای سلامت

طراحی و اجرا M.Ramezani
ارتباط با ما Info@darunama.com