پیموزاید
Pimozide (Orap)
پیموزاید

نام ژنریک

Pimozide

شکل دارویی

اشكال دارويي:


Tablet: 4mg

موارد مصرف

موارد و مقدار مصرف


مهار تيکهاي شديد حرکتي و گفتاري در بيماران مبتلا به سندروم توره.


بزرگسالان و کودکان بزرگتر از 12 سال: شروع با 1 تا 2 ميلي‌گرم روزانه و در دوزهاي منقسم مي‌باشد. سپس در صورت لزوم دوزاژ به صورت يک روز در ميان افزايش مي‌يابد. دوزاژ maintenance معمولا کمتر از mg/kg2/0
يا 10 ميلي‌گرم روزانه (هر کدام کمتر است) مي‌باشد. حداکثر دوز روزانه
10 ميلي‌گرم مي‌باشد.


کودکان کوچکتر از 12 سال: mg/kg 05/0 شبها، به فاصله هر سه روز يک بار دوزاژ تا حداکثر mg/kg2/0 افزايش مي‌يابد. حداکثر دوز روزانه 10 ميلي‌گرم مي‌باشد.

موارد منع مصرف

موارد منع مصرف و احتياط


موارد منع مصرف: حساسيت به دارو، استفاده در تيکهاي ساده يا تيکهايي که مربوط به سندروم توره نيستند، همراه با داروهايي که ايجاد تيکهاي حرکتي و صوتي مي‌کنند، سندروم طولاني بودن QT-interval به صورت مادرزادي يا سابقه آريتمي، کوما، دپرسيون شديد CNS همراه با مسموميت، ديسکرازي خوني، اختلالات دپرسيو، و سندروم پارکينسون.


موارد احتياط: کاهش عملکرد کبد يا کليه، گلوکوم، هيپرپلازي پروستات، اختلالات تشنجي يا اختلال در نوار مغزي

عوارض جانبی دارو

ملاحظات اختصاصي


1- قبل از شروع درمان نوار قلبي پايه از بيمار گرفته و عوارض قلبي ـ عروقي به صورت دوره اي مونيتور شود.


2- در دوزهاي نرمال عوارض اکستراپيراميدال در حدود 10 تا 15 درصد بيماران ديده مي‌شود. اين واکنشها بويژه در روزهاي اول درمان اتفاق مي‌افتد.


3- اگر بي قراري و آژيتاسيون شديد اتفاق بيفتد، درمان با يک بتا بلاکر مانند پروپرانولول يا متوپرولول مي‌تواند مفيد باشد.


4- سطح پتاسيم بيمار در محدوده نرمال نگه داشته شود، کاهش سطح پتاسيم مي‌تواند خطر ايجاد آريتمي را افزايش دهد. سطح پتاسيم در بيماران دچار اسهال و مصرف کنندگان ديورتيک بايد مونيتور شود.


5- در صورت نياز به قطع دارو، به صورت آهسته و با افزايش 1 ميلي‌گرم در هفته انجام شود.


نكات قابل توصيه به بيمار


1- واکنشهاي ديستونيک و ديسکينزي تاخيري براي بيماران توضيح داده شود.


2- دارو دقيقا به همان صورت تجويز شده مصرف شود، دوزهاي فراموش شده دو برابر نشود، دارو به ديگران توصيه نشده و به صورت ناگهاني قطع نشود.


3- آثار درماني پس از چندين هفته اتفاق مي‌افتد.


4- جهت جلوگيري از سرگيجه در شروع درمان، بعد از مصرف هر دوز بيمار بايد حدود 30 دقيقه دراز کشيده و از تغيير وضعيت ناگهاني بويژه در هنگام بلند شدن براي ايستادن خودداري کند.


5- اثرات و عوارض غير معمول گزارش داده شود.


6- اين دارو با الکل، توام با داروهاي خواب آور و داروهاي آرام‌بخش ديگر بدون تاييد پزشک مصرف نشود.


7- اين دارو با آب گريپ فروت مصرف نشود.


8- از آبنباتهاي بدون قند، آدامس، يخ يا بزاق مصنوعي جهت برطرف کردن خشکي دهان استفاده شود.


9- جهت کم کردن خواب آلودگي در طول روز، بهتر است تمام دوز روزانه در هنگام خواب مصرف شود.


10- از انجام کارهاي پرخطر که نياز به هوشياري کامل دارند، پرهيز کنيد.


مصرف در سالمندان: بيماران مسن بويژه خانمها سميت قلبي و ديسکينزي تاخيري را حتي در دوزهاي نرمال بيشتر نشان مي‌دهند.


مصرف در كودكان: استفاده و کارايي اين دارو در کودکان زير 12 سال محدود مي‌باشد. دوزاژ دارو در حداقل مقدار ممکن نگه داشته شود. استفاده از اين دارو در کودکان براي اختلالاتي غير از سندروم توره توصيه نمي‌شود.

موارد قابل توجه

-

تداخل دارویی

تداخل دارويي


استفاده همزمان با آمفتامينها، متيل فنيديت و پمولين، تيکهاي شبه توره ايجاد کرده و يا تيکهاي موجود را بدتر مي‌کند. بيمار به دقت مونيتور شود.


در هنگام مصرف همزمان با داروهاي ضد تشنج مانند کاربامازپين، فنوباربيتال و فني توئين، در صورت بروز تشنج، دوز داروي ضدتشنج در صورت لزوم افزايش داده شود.


استفاده توام با داروهاي ضدافسردگي، ديزوپيراميد، فنوتيازينها و آنتي سايکوتيکهاي ديگر، پروکائيناميد، کينيدين و آنتي آريتميهاي ديگر، مي‌تواند هدايت قلبي را دپرس کرده، QT-interval را طولاني کند و آريتميهاي جدي ايجاد کند. بيمار به دقت مونيتور شود.


استفاده همزمان با آپرپيتانت، ضد قارچهاي آزولي مانند ايتراکونازول و کتوکونازول، ماکروليدها مانند آزيترومايسين، کلاريترومايسين و اريترومايسين، نفازودون، مهارکننده‌هاي پروتئاز مانند اينديناوير، نلفيناوير، ريتوناوير و ساکيناوير، SSRI‌ ها و زيلوتن مي‌تواند QT- interval را طولاني کرده و آريتمي‌هاي بطني و مرگ ايجاد کند. از استفاده توام پرهيز شود.


استفاده همزمان با دپرس کننده‌هاي سيستم اعصاب مرکزي مانند ضد دردها، ضد اضطرابها، باربيتوراتها، بيهوش کننده‌هاي اپيدورال، جنرال و اسپاينال، اپيوئيدها، منيزيوم سولفات تزريقي و آرامبخشها، به علت اثر مضاعف دپرسيون CNS ، ميتواند آرام بخشي زياد و دپرسيون تنفسي ايجاد کند. از استفاده توام پرهيز شود.


مصرف همزمان با آب گريپ فروت مي‌تواند متابوليسم دارو را مهار کرده و عوارض ناخواسته ايجاد کند. از استفاده همزمان پرهيز شود.


مصرف همزمان با الکل مي‌تواند اثرات آرامبخشي مضاعف و دپرسيون تنفسي ايجاد کند.

مکانیزم اثر

تداخل دارويي


استفاده همزمان با آمفتامينها، متيل فنيديت و پمولين، تيکهاي شبه توره ايجاد کرده و يا تيکهاي موجود را بدتر مي‌کند. بيمار به دقت مونيتور شود.


در هنگام مصرف همزمان با داروهاي ضد تشنج مانند کاربامازپين، فنوباربيتال و فني توئين، در صورت بروز تشنج، دوز داروي ضدتشنج در صورت لزوم افزايش داده شود.


استفاده توام با داروهاي ضدافسردگي، ديزوپيراميد، فنوتيازينها و آنتي سايکوتيکهاي ديگر، پروکائيناميد، کينيدين و آنتي آريتميهاي ديگر، مي‌تواند هدايت قلبي را دپرس کرده، QT-interval را طولاني کند و آريتميهاي جدي ايجاد کند. بيمار به دقت مونيتور شود.


استفاده همزمان با آپرپيتانت، ضد قارچهاي آزولي مانند ايتراکونازول و کتوکونازول، ماکروليدها مانند آزيترومايسين، کلاريترومايسين و اريترومايسين، نفازودون، مهارکننده‌هاي پروتئاز مانند اينديناوير، نلفيناوير، ريتوناوير و ساکيناوير، SSRI‌ ها و زيلوتن مي‌تواند QT- interval را طولاني کرده و آريتمي‌هاي بطني و مرگ ايجاد کند. از استفاده توام پرهيز شود.


استفاده همزمان با دپرس کننده‌هاي سيستم اعصاب مرکزي مانند ضد دردها، ضد اضطرابها، باربيتوراتها، بيهوش کننده‌هاي اپيدورال، جنرال و اسپاينال، اپيوئيدها، منيزيوم سولفات تزريقي و آرامبخشها، به علت اثر مضاعف دپرسيون CNS ، ميتواند آرام بخشي زياد و دپرسيون تنفسي ايجاد کند. از استفاده توام پرهيز شود.


مصرف همزمان با آب گريپ فروت مي‌تواند متابوليسم دارو را مهار کرده و عوارض ناخواسته ايجاد کند. از استفاده همزمان پرهيز شود.


مصرف همزمان با الکل مي‌تواند اثرات آرامبخشي مضاعف و دپرسيون تنفسي ايجاد کند.

فارماكوكینتیك

فارماكوكينتيك


جذب: به صورت آهسته و ناکامل از دستگاه گوارش جذب مي‌شود. فراهمي زيستي دارو حدود 50% مي‌باشد. سطح پلاسمايي دارو در مدت 4 تا 12 ساعت (معمولا 6 تا 8 ساعت) به پيک مي‌رسد.


پخش: در بافتهاي مختلف به صورت گسترده توزيع مي‌شود.


متابوليسم: بوسيله كبد متابوليزه شده و يک گذر اول کبدي قوي وجود دارد.


دفع: حدود 40% از دارو در مدت 3 تا 4 روز به صورت داروي اوليه و متابوليت در ادرار دفع مي‌شود. حدود 15% از دارو در مدت 3 تا 6 روز از طريق مجراي صفراوي در مدفوع دفع مي‌شود.





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روش مصرف




شروع اثر




پيک اثر




مدت اثر




خوراکي




نامشخص




4-12 ساعت




نامشخص



سایر اطلاعات

طبقه‌بندي فارماكولوژيك: دي فنيل بوتيل پيپريدين.


طبقه‌بندي درماني: آنتي سايکوتيک.


طبقه‌بندي مصرف در بارداري: رده C


نام‌هاي تجاري: Orap Forte


عوارض جانبي


اعصاب مرکزي: عوارض رفتاري، خواب آلودگي، سردرد، بي خوابي، سندروم نورولپتيک بدخيم، علائم شبه پارکينسون، واکنشهاي اکستراپيراميدال ديگر مانند ديستوني، آکاتيژي، هيپررفلکسي، اپيستوتون وکريز چشمي، آرام بخشي، ديسکينزي تاخيري.


قلبي ـ عروقي: تغييرات نوار قلبي مانند طولاني شدن QT- interval ، افزايش فشارخون، کاهش فشارخون، تاكيكاردي، آريتمي بطني.


گوش، چشم، حلق، بيني: تاري ديد.


دستگاه گوارش: يبوست، خشکي دهن، تهوع، استفراغ، بي‌اشتهايي.


ادراري: ناتواني جنسي، تکرر ادرار.


عضلاني ـ اسکلتي: سفتي عضلات.


پوست: تعريق، راش جلدي.


مسموميت و درمان


تظاهرات باليني: واکنشهاي اکستراپيراميدال شديد، کمي فشارخون، دپرسيون تنفسي، کما و اختلالات نوار قلبي مانند طولاني شدن QT- interval ، معکوس يا تخت شدن موج T و ظاهر جديد موج U.


درمان: لاواژ معده براي برداشتن داروي جذب نشده، نگه داشتن فشارخون با مايعات وريدي، حجم دهنده‌هاي پلاسما يا نوراپي‌نفرين. از اپي‌نفرين استفاده نشود. جهت درمان علائم اکستراپيراميدال از ديفن هيدرامين تزريقي استفاده شود. به علت طولاني بودن نيمه‌ عمر دارو (حدود 55 ساعت) جهت بررسي عوارض جانبي، بيمار حداقل براي 4 روز مورد بررسي قرار بگيرد.

Pimozide (Orap)

ORAP®
(pimozide) Tablets

DRUG DESCRIPTION

ORAP® (pimozide) is an orally active antipsychotic agent of the diphenyl-butylpiperidine series. The structural formula of pimozide, 1-[1-[4,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl) butyl]-4piperidinyl]-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-2-one is:

ORAP® (Pimozide) Structural Formula Illustration

The solubility of pimozide in water is less than 0.01 mg/mL; it is slightly soluble in most organic solvents.

Each white ORAP tablet contains either 1 mg or 2 mg of pimozide and the following inactive ingredients: calcium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose anhydrous and corn starch.

What are the possible side effects of pimozide (Orap)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • seizure (convulsions);
  • twitching or uncontrollable movements of your eyes, lips, tongue, face, arms, or legs; or
  • very stiff (rigid) muscles, high fever, sweating, confusion, fast or uneven heartbeats, tremors, feeling like you might pass out.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • fever;
  • headache,...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Orap »

What are the precautions when taking pimozide (Orap)?

Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: blood problems (such as a low white blood cell count), a certain eye condition (glaucoma), dementia, depression, heart problems (such as slow/fast/irregular heartbeat, low blood pressure), slow movement of the gut/intestines (such as chronic constipation, blockage), kidney disease, liver disease, brain disorder/tumor/injury, drug/alcohol/substance abuse, breast cancer, Parkinson's disease, seizure disorder, a certain...

Read All Potential Precautions of Orap »

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/7/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

INDICATIONS

ORAP (pimozide) is indicated for the suppression of motor and phonic tics in patients with Tourette's Disorder who have failed to respond satisfactorily to standard treatment. ORAP is not intended as a treatment of first choice nor is it intended for the treatment of tics that are merely annoying or cosmetically troublesome. ORAP should be reserved for use in Tourette's Disorder patients whose development and/or daily life function is severely compromised by the presence of motor and phonic tics.

Evidence supporting approval of pimozide for use in Tourette's Disorder was obtained in two controlled clinical investigations which enrolled patients between the ages of 8 and 53 years. Most subjects in the two trials were 12 or older.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

General

The suppression of tics by ORAP requires a slow and gradual introduction of the drug. The patient's dose should be carefully adjusted to a point where the suppression of tics and the relief afforded is balanced against the untoward side effects of the drug.

An ECG should be done at baseline and periodically thereafter, especially during the period of dose adjustment (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS Laboratory Tests). Periodic attempts should be made to reduce the dosage of ORAP to see whether or not tics persist at the level and extent first identified. In attempts to reduce the dosage of ORAP, consideration should be given to the possibility that increases of tic intensity and frequency may represent a transient, withdrawal-related phenomenon rather than a return of disease symptoms. Specifically, one to two weeks should be allowed to elapse before one concludes that an increase in tic manifestations is a function of the underlying disease syndrome rather than a response to drug withdrawal. A gradual withdrawal is recommended in any case.

Children

Reliable dose response data for the effects of ORAP (pimozide) on tic manifestation in Tourette's Disorder patients below the age of twelve are not available.

Treatment should be initiated at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg preferably taken once at bedtime. The dose may be increased every third day to a maximum of 0.2 mg/kg not to exceed 10 mg/day.

At doses above 0.05 mg/kg/day, CYP 2D6 genotyping should be performed. In poor CYP 2D6 metabolizers, ORAP doses should not exceed 0.05 mg/kg/day, and doses should not be increased earlier than 14 days (see PRECAUTIONSPharmacogenomics).

Adults

In general, treatment with ORAP should be initiated with a dose of 1 to 2 mg a day in divided doses. The dose may be increased thereafter every other day. Most patients are maintained at less than 0.2 mg/kg/day, or 10 mg/day, whichever is less. Doses greater than 0.2 mg/kg/day or 10 mg/day are not recommended.

At doses above 4 mg/day, CYP 2D6 genotyping should be performed. In poor CYP 2D6 metabolizers, ORAP doses should not exceed 4 mg/day, and doses should not be increased earlier than 14 days (see PRECAUTIONSPharmacogenomics).

Animal Pharmacology

A chronic study in dogs indicated that pimozide caused gingival hyperplasia when administered for several months at about 5 times the maximum recommended human dose. This condition was reversible after withdrawal.

HOW SUPPLIED

ORAP® (pimozide) 1 mg tablets are white, oval, scored tablets, debossed “ORAP 1”. They are available in bottles of 100 (NDC 57844-151-01).

ORAP® (pimozide) 2 mg tablets are white, oval, scored tablets, debossed “LEMMON” on one side and “ORAP 2” on the other. They are available in bottles of 100 (NDC 57844-187-01).

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the official compendium.

Pharmacist: Dispense in child-resistant container.

Manufactured for: Gate Pharmaceuticals, Div. of Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Sellersville, PA 18960. Manufactured by: Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Sellersville, PA 18960. Rev. Aug 2011

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/7/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

SIDE EFFECTS

General

Extrapyramidal Reactions

Neuromuscular (extrapyramidal) reactions during the administration of ORAP® (pimozide) have been reported frequently, often during the first few days of treatment. In most patients, these reactions involved Parkinson-like symptoms which, when first observed, were usually mild to moderately severe and usually reversible.

Other types of neuromuscular reactions (motor restlessness, dystonia, akathisia, hyperreflexia, opisthotonos, oculogyric crises) have been reported far less frequently. Severe extrapyramidal reactions have been reported to occur at relatively low doses. Generally the occurrence and severity of most extrapyramidal symptoms are dose-related since they occur at relatively high doses and have been shown to disappear or become less severe when the dose is reduced. Administration of antiparkinson drugs such as benztropine mesylate or trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride may be required for control of such reactions. It should be noted that persistent extrapyramidal reactions have been reported and that the drug may have to be discontinued in such cases.

Withdrawal Emergent Neurological Signs

Generally, patients receiving short term therapy experience no problems with abrupt discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs.

However, some patients on maintenance treatment experience transient dyskinetic signs after abrupt withdrawal. In certain of these cases the dyskinetic movements are indistinguishable from the syndrome described below under “Tardive Dyskinesia” except for duration. It is not known whether gradual withdrawal of antipsychotic drugs will reduce the rate of occurrence of withdrawal emergent neurological signs, but until further evidence becomes available, it seems reasonable to gradually withdraw use of ORAP.

Tardive Dyskinesia

ORAP may be associated with persistent dyskinesias. Tardive dyskinesia, a syndrome consisting of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements, may appear in some patients on long-term therapy or may occur after drug therapy has been discontinued. The risk appears to be greater in elderly patients on high-dose therapy, especially females. The symptoms are persistent and in some patients appear irreversible. The syndrome is characterized by rhythmical involuntary movements of tongue, face, mouth or jaw (e.g., protrusion of tongue, puffing of cheeks, puckering of mouth, chewing movements). Sometimes these may be accompanied by involuntary movements of extremities and the trunk.

There is no known effective treatment for tardive dyskinesia; antiparkinson agents usually do not alleviate the symptoms of this syndrome. It is suggested that all antipsychotic agents be discontinued if these symptoms appear. Should it be necessary to reinstitute treatment, or increase the dosage of the agent, or switch to a different antipsychotic agent, this syndrome may be masked.

It has been reported that fine vermicular movement of the tongue may be an early sign of tardive dyskinesia and if the medication is stopped at that time the syndrome may not develop.

Electrocardiographic Changes

Electrocardiographic changes have been observed in clinical trials of ORAP in Tourette's Disorder and schizophrenia. These have included prolongation of the QT interval, flattening, notching and inversion of the T wave and the appearance of U waves. Sudden, unexpected deaths and grand mal seizure have occurred at doses above 20 mg/day.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) has been reported with ORAP. (See WARNINGS for further information concerning NMS.)

Hyperpyrexia

Hyperpyrexia has been reported with other antipsychotic drugs.

Clinical Trials

The following adverse reaction tabulation was derived from 20 patients in a 6-week long placebo-controlled clinical trial of ORAP in Tourette's Disorder.

Body System/ Adverse Reaction Pimozide
(N = 20)
Placebo
(N = 20)
Body as a Whole
  Headache 1 2
Gastrointestinal
  Dry Mouth 5 1
  Diarrhea 1 0
  Nausea 0 2
  Vomiting 0 1
  Constipation 4 2
  Eructations 0 1
  Thirsty 1 0
  Appetite increase 1 0
Endocrine
  Menstrual disorder 0 1
  Breast secretions 0 1
Musculoskeletal
  Muscle cramps 0 1
  Muscle tightness 3 0
  Stooped posture 2 0
CNS
  Drowsiness 7 3
  Sedation 14 5
  Insomnia 2 2
  Dizziness 0 1
  Akathisia 8 0
  Rigidity 2 0
  Speech disorder 2 0
  Handwriting change 1 0
  Akinesia 8 0
Psychiatric
  Depression 2 3
  Excitement 0 1
  Nervous 1 0
  Adverse behavior effect 5 0
Special Senses
  Visual disturbance 4 0
  Taste change 1 0
  Sensitivity of eyes to light 1 0
  Decrease accommodation 4 1
  Spots before eyes 0 1
Urogenital
  Impotence 3 0

The following adverse event tabulation was derived from 36 children (age 2 to 12) in a 24-week open trial of ORAP in Tourette's Disorder.

Body System/ Adverse Reaction Number of Patients Experiencing Each Event (%)
All Events
(N=36)
Drug-Related Events
(N=36)
Body as a Whole
  Asthenia 9 (25.0) 5 (13.8)
  Headache 8 (22.2) 1 (2.7)
Gastrointestinal
  Dysphagia 1 (2.7) 1 (2.7)
  Increased Salivation 5 (13.8) 2 (5.5)
Musculoskeletal
  Myalgia 1 (2.7) 1 (2.7)
Central Nervous System
  Dreaming Abnormal 1 (2.7) 1 (2.7)
  Hyperkinesia 2 (5.5) 1 (2.7)
  Somnolence 10 (27.7) 9 (25.0)
  Torticollis 1 (2.7) 1 (2.7)
  Tremor, Limbs 1 (2.7) 1 (2.7)
Psychiatric
  Adverse Behavior Effect 10 (27.7) 8 (22.2)
  Nervous 3 (8.3) 2 (5.5)
Skin
  Rash 3 (8.3) 1 (2.7)
Special Senses
  Visual Disturbance 2 (5.5) 1 (2.7)
Cardiovascular
  ECG Abnormal 1 (2.7) 1 (2.7)

Because clinical investigational experience with ORAP in Tourette's Disorder is limited, uncommon adverse reactions may not have been detected. The physician should consider that other adverse reactions associated with antipsychotics may occur.

Other Adverse Reactions

In addition to the adverse reactions listed above, those listed below have been reported in U.S. clinical trials of ORAP in conditions other than Tourette's Disorder.

Body as a Whole: Asthenia, chest pain, periorbital edema

Cardiovascular/Respiratory: Postural hypotension, hypotension, hypertension, tachycardia, palpitations

Gastrointestinal: Increased salivation, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, GI distress

Endocrine: Loss of libido

Metabolic/Nutritional: Weight gain, weight loss

Central Nervous System: Dizziness, tremor, parkinsonism, fainting, dyskinesia

Psychiatric: Excitement

Skin: Rash, sweating, skin irritation

Special Senses: Blurred vision, cataracts

Urogenital: Nocturia, urinary frequency

Postmarketing Reports

The following experiences were described in spontaneous postmarketing reports. These reports do not provide sufficient information to establish a clear causal relationship with the use of ORAP.

Gastrointestinal: Gingival hyperplasia in one patient

Hematologic: Hemolytic anemia

Metabolic/Nutritional: Hyponatremia

Other: Seizure

Read the Orap (pimozide) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Because ORAP prolongs the QT interval of the electrocardiogram, an additive effect on QT interval would be anticipated if administered with other drugs, such as phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants or antiarrhythmic agents, which prolong the QT interval. Accordingly, pimozide should not be given with dofetilide, sotalol, quinidine, other Class Ia and III anti-arrhythmics, mesoridazine, thioridazine, chlorpromazine, droperidol, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, halofantrine, mefloquine, pentamidine, arsenic trioxide, levomethadyl acetate, dolasetron mesylate, probucol, tacrolimus, ziprasidone, or other drugs that have demonstrated QT prolongation as one of their pharmacodynamic effects. Also, the use of macrolide antibiotics in patients with prolonged QT intervals has been rarely associated with ventricular arrhythmias. Such concomitant administration should not be undertaken (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Since ORAP is partly metabolized via CYP 3A4, it should not be administered concomitantly with inhibitors of this metabolic system, such as azole antifungal agents and protease inhibitor drugs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Pimozide and Celexa: In a controlled study, a single dose of pimozide 2 mg coadministered with racemic citalopram 40 mg given once daily for 11 days was associated with a mean increase in QTc values of approximately 10 msec compared to pimozide given alone. Racemic citalopram did not alter the mean AUC or Cmax of pimozide. The mechanism of this pharmacodynamic interaction is not known. Concomitant use of pimozide and Celexa or Lexapro is contraindicated (See CONTRAINDICATIONS).

CYP 2D6 inhibitors: In healthy subjects, co-administration of pimozide 2 mg (single dose) and paroxetine 60 mg resulted in a 151% increase in pimozide AUC and a 62% increase in pimozide Cmax compared to pimozide administered alone. The increase in pimozide AUC and Cmax is related to the CYP 2D6 inhibitory properties of paroxetine. Concomitant use of pimozide and paroxetine or other strong CYP 2D6 inhibitors are contraindicated (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). As CYP 1A2 may also contribute to the metabolism of ORAP, prescribers should be aware of the theoretical potential for drug interactions with inhibitors of this enzymatic system.

ORAP may be capable of potentiating CNS depressants, including analgesics, sedatives, anxiolytics, and alcohol.

Rare case reports have suggested possible additive effects of pimozide and fluoxetine leading to bradycardia.

Concomitant administration of pimozide and sertraline should be contraindicated (See CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Pharmacogenomics

Individuals with genetic variations resulting in poor CYP 2D6 metabolism (approximately 5 to 10% of the population) exhibit higher pimozide concentrations than extensive CYP 2D6 metabolizers. The concentrations observed in poor CYP 2D6 metabolizers are similar to those seen with strong CYP 2D6 inhibitors such as paroxetine. The time to achieve steady state pimozide concentrations is expected to be longer (approximately 2 weeks) in poor CYP 2D6 metabolizers because of the prolonged half-life. Alternative dosing strategies are recommended in patients who are genetically poor CYP 2D6 metabolizers (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Interaction with Food

Patients should avoid grapefruit juice because it may inhibit the metabolism of pimozide by CYP 3A4.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/7/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

WARNINGS

The use of ORAP (pimozide) in the treatment of Tourette's Disorder involves different risk/benefit considerations than when antipsychotic drugs are used to treat other conditions. Consequently, a decision to use ORAP should take into consideration the following (see also PATIENT INFORMATION).

Tardive Dyskinesia

A syndrome consisting of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.

Both the risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses.

There is no known treatment for established cases of tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic treatment itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome and thereby may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.

Given these considerations, antipsychotic drugs should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment should generally be reserved for patients who suffer from a chronic illness that, 1) is known to respond to antipsychotic drugs, and, 2) for whom alternative, equally effective, but potentially less harmful treatments are not available or appropriate. In patients who do require chronic treatment, the smallest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically.

If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on antipsychotics, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment despite the presence of the syndrome.

(For further information about the description of tardive dyskinesia and its clinical detection, please refer to ADVERSE REACTIONS and PRECAUTIONS -Information for Patients.)

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with antipsychotic drugs. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status (including catatonic signs) and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmias). Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis) and acute renal failure.

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to identify cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology.

The management of NMS should include 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.

If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.

Hyperpyrexia, not associated with the above symptom complex, has been reported with other antipsychotic drugs.

Other

Sudden, unexpected deaths have occurred in experimental studies of conditions other than Tourette's Disorder. These deaths occurred while patients were receiving dosages in the range of 1 mg per kg. One possible mechanism for such deaths is prolongation of the QT interval predisposing patients to ventricular arrhythmia. An electrocardiogram should be performed before ORAP treatment is initiated and periodically thereafter, especially during the period of dose adjustment.

ORAP may have a tumorigenic potential. Based on studies conducted in mice, it is known that pimozide can produce a dose-related increase in pituitary tumors. The full significance of this finding is not known, but should be taken into consideration in the physician's and patient's decisions to use this drug product. This finding should be given special consideration when the patient is young and chronic use of pimozide is anticipated (see PRECAUTIONS -Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis,Impairment of Fertility).

PRECAUTIONS

Leukopenia, Neutropenia and Agranulocytosis

Class Effect: In clinical trial and/or postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia/neutropenia and agranulocytosis have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents.

Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include preexisting low white blood cell count (WBC) and history of drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia. Patients with a history of a clinically significant low WBC or drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and discontinuation of ORAP should be considered at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors.

Patients with clinically significant neutropenia should be carefully monitored for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treated promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count < 1000/mm³) should discontinue ORAP and have their WBC followed until recovery.

General

ORAP (pimozide) may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a car or operating machinery, especially during the first few days of therapy.

ORAP produces anticholinergic side effects and should be used with caution in individuals whose conditions may be aggravated by anticholinergic activity.

ORAP should be administered cautiously to patients with impairment of liver or kidney function, because it is metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidneys.

Antipsychotics should be administered with caution to patients receiving anticonvulsant medication, with a history of seizures, or with EEG abnormalities, because they may lower the convulsive threshold. If indicated, adequate anticonvulsant therapy should be maintained concomitantly.

Laboratory Tests

An ECG should be done at baseline and periodically thereafter throughout the period of dose adjustment. Any indication of prolongation of QTc interval beyond an absolute limit of 0.47 seconds (children) or 0.52 seconds (adults), or more than 25% above the patient's original baseline should be considered a basis for stopping further dose increase (see CONTRAINDICATIONS) and considering a lower dose.

Since hypokalemia has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias, potassium insufficiency, secondary to diuretics, diarrhea, or other cause, should be corrected before ORAP therapy is initiated and normal potassium maintained during therapy.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity studies were conducted in mice and rats. In mice, pimozide causes a dose-related increase in pituitary and mammary tumors.

When mice were treated for up to 18 months with pimozide, pituitary gland changes developed in females only. These changes were characterized as hyperplasia at doses approximating the human dose and adenoma at doses about fifteen times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg per kg basis. The mechanism for the induction of pituitary tumors in mice is not known.

Mammary gland tumors in female mice were also increased, but these tumors are expected in rodents treated with antipsychotic drugs which elevate prolactin levels. Chronic administration of an antipsychotic also causes elevated prolactin levels in humans. Tissue culture experiments indicate that approximately one-third of human breast cancers are prolactin-dependent in vitro , a factor of potential importance if the prescription of these drugs is contemplated in a patient with a previously detected breast cancer. Although disturbances such as galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and impotence have been reported with antipsychotic drugs, the clinical significance of elevated serum prolactin levels is unknown for most patients. Neither clinical studies nor epidemiologic studies conducted to date have shown an association between chronic administration of these drugs and mammary tumorigenesis. The available evidence, however, is considered too limited to be conclusive at this time.

In a 24-month carcinogenicity study in rats, animals received up to 50 times the maximum recommended human dose. No increased incidence of overall tumors or tumors at any site was observed in either sex. Because of the limited number of animals surviving this study, the meaning of these results is unclear.

Pimozide did not have mutagenic activity in the Ames test with four bacterial test strains, in the mouse dominant lethal test or in the micronucleus test in rats.

Reproduction studies in animals were not adequate to assess all aspects of fertility. Nevertheless, female rats administered pimozide had prolonged estrus cycles, an effect also produced by other antipsychotic drugs.

Pregnancy

Category C. Reproduction studies performed in rats and rabbits at oral doses up to 8 times the maximum human dose did not reveal evidence of teratogenicity. In the rat, however, this multiple of the human dose resulted in decreased pregnancies and in the retarded development of fetuses. These effects are thought to be due to an inhibition or delay in implantation which is also observed in rodents administered other antipsychotic drugs. In the rabbit, maternal toxicity, mortality, decreased weight gain, and embryotoxicity including increased resorptions were dose-related. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, pimozide should be given to a pregnant woman only if the potential benefits of treatment clearly outweigh the potential risks.

Nonteratogenic effects

Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs, during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress and feeding disorder in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity; while in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization.

ORAP should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Labor and Delivery

This drug has no recognized use in labor or delivery.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether pimozide is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for tumorigenicity and unknown cardiovascular effects in the infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Although Tourette's Disorder most often has its onset between the ages of 2 and 15 years, information on the use and efficacy of ORAP in patients less than 12 years of age is limited. A 24-week open label study in 36 children between the ages of 2 and 12 demonstrated that pimozide has a similar safety profile in this age group as in older patients and there were no safety findings that would preclude its use in this age group.

Because its use and safety have not been evaluated in other childhood disorders, ORAP is not recommended for use in any condition other than Tourette's Disorder.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/7/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OVERDOSE

In general, the signs and symptoms of overdosage with ORAP (pimozide) would be an exaggeration of known pharmacologic effects and adverse reactions, the most prominent of which would be: 1) electrocardiographic abnormalities, 2) severe extrapyramidal reactions, 3) hypotension, 4) a comatose state with respiratory depression.

In the event of overdosage, gastric lavage, establishment of a patent airway and, if necessary, mechanically-assisted respiration are advised. Electrocardiographic monitoring should commence immediately and continue until the ECG parameters are within the normal range. Hypotension and circulatory collapse may be counteracted by use of intravenous fluids, plasma, or concentrated albumin, and vasopressor agents such as metaraminol, phenylephrine and norepinephrine.

Epinephrine should not be used. In case of severe extrapyramidal reactions, antiparkinson medication should be administered. Because of the long half-life of pimozide, patients who take an overdose should be observed for at least 4 days. As with all drugs, the physician should consider contacting a poison control center for additional information on the treatment of overdose.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

  1. ORAP (pimozide) is contraindicated in the treatment of simple tics or tics other than those associated with Tourette's Disorder.
  2. ORAP should not be used in patients taking drugs that may, themselves, cause motor and phonic tics (e.g., pemoline, methylphenidate and amphetamines) until such patients have been withdrawn from these drugs to determine whether or not the drugs, rather than Tourette's Disorder, are responsible for the tics.
  3. Because ORAP prolongs the QT interval of the electrocardiogram it is contraindicated in patients with congenital long QT syndrome, patients with a history of cardiac arrhythmias, patients taking other drugs which prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram or patients with known hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia (see also PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).
  4. ORAP is contraindicated in patients with severe toxic central nervous system depression or comatose states from any cause.
  5. ORAP is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to it. As it is not known whether cross-sensitivity exists among the antipsychotics, pimozide should be used with appropriate caution in patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to other antipsychotic drugs.
  6. Ventricular arrhythmias have been rarely associated with the use of macrolide antibiotics in patients with prolonged QT intervals, as might be produced by ORAP. Specifically, two sudden deaths have been reported when clarithromycin was added to ongoing pimozide therapy. Furthermore, some evidence suggests that pimozide is metabolized partly by the enzyme system cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4). Macrolide antibiotics are inhibitors of CYP 3A4, and thus could potentially impede pimozide metabolism. For these reasons, ORAP is contraindicated in patients receiving the macrolide antibiotics clarithromycin, erythromycin, azithromycin, dirithromycin, and troleandomycin.
  7. Concomitant use in patients taking Celexa or Lexapro is contraindicated (seePRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS - Pimozide and Celexa).
  8. Clinical drug interaction studies have demonstrated that pimozide is also metabolized by CYP 2D6. Concomitant use of ORAP with paroxetine and other strong CYP 2D6 inhibitors is contraindicated (SeePRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).
  9. Concomitant use of pimozide in patients taking sertraline is contraindicated (SeePRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS).

Because azole antifungal agents are also inhibitors of the CYP 3A4 enzymes and thus may likewise impair pimozide metabolism, ORAP is contraindicated in patients receiving the azole antifungal agents itraconazole and ketoconazole.

Similarly, protease inhibitor drugs are also inhibitors of CYP 3A4, and thus ORAP is contraindicated in patients receiving protease inhibitors such as ritonavir, saquinovir, indinavir, and nelfinavir. (SeePRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS.)

Nefazodone is a potent inhibitor of CYP 3A4, and its concomitant use with ORAP is also contraindicated.

Other drugs that are relatively less potent inhibitors of CYP 3A4 should also be avoided, in view of the risks: e.g. zileuton, fluvoxamine.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/7/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Pharmacodynamic Actions

ORAP (pimozide) is an orally active antipsychotic drug product which shares with other antipsychotics the ability to blockade dopaminergic receptors on neurons in the central nervous system. Although its exact mode of action has not been established, the ability of pimozide to suppress motor and phonic tics in Tourette's Disorder is thought to be a function of its dopaminergic blocking activity. However, receptor blockade is often accompanied by a series of secondary alterations in central dopamine metabolism and function which may contribute to both pimozide's therapeutic and untoward effects. In addition, pimozide, in common with other antipsychotic drugs, has various effects on other central nervous system receptor systems which are not fully characterized.

Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics

More than 50% of a dose of pimozide is absorbed after oral administration. Based on the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile, pimozide appears to undergo significant first pass metabolism. Peak serum levels occur generally six to eight hours (range 4-12 hours) after dosing.

Pimozide is extensively metabolized, primarily by N-dealkylation in the liver. This metabolism is catalyzed mainly by the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) enzymatic system and to a lesser extent, by cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP 1A2) and cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP 2D6). Two major metabolites have been identified, 1-(4-piperidyl)-2benzimidazolinone and 4,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl) butyric acid. The antipsychotic activity of these metabolites is undetermined. The major route of elimination of pimozide and its metabolites is through the kidney.

The mean serum elimination half-life of pimozide in schizophrenic patients was approximately 55 hours. There was a 13-fold interindividual difference in the area under the serum pimozide level-time curve and an equivalent degree of variation in peak serum levels among patients studied. The significance of this is unclear since there are few correlations between plasma levels and clinical findings.

Effects of food and disease upon the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of pimozide are not known. Effects of concomitant medication and genetic variations on pimozide metabolism are described in the CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS sections.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/7/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

PATIENT INFORMATION

Treatment with ORAP exposes the patient to serious risks. A decision to use ORAP chronically in Tourette's Disorder is one that deserves full consideration by the patient (or patient's family) as well as by the treating physician. Because the goal of treatment is symptomatic improvement, the patient's view of the need for treatment and assessment of response are critical in evaluating the impact of therapy and weighing its benefits against the risks. Since the physician is the primary source of information about the use of a drug in any disease, it is recommended that the following information be discussed with patients and/or their families.

ORAP is intended only for use in patients with Tourette's Disorder whose symptoms are severe and who cannot tolerate, or who do not respond to HALDOL® (haloperidol).

Given the likelihood that a proportion of patients exposed chronically to antipsychotics will develop tardive dyskinesia, it is advised that all patients in whom chronic use is contemplated be given, if possible, full information about this risk. The decision to inform patients and/or their guardians must obviously take into account the clinical circumstances and the competency of the patient to understand the information provided.

There is limited information available on the use of ORAP in children under 12 years of age.

The information available on ORAP from foreign marketing experience and from U.S. clinical trials indicates that ORAP has a side effect profile similar to that of other antipsychotic drugs. Patients should be informed that all types of side effects associated with the use of antipsychotics may be associated with the use of ORAP.

In addition, sudden, unexpected deaths have occurred in patients taking high doses of ORAP for conditions other than Tourette's Disorder. These deaths may have been the result of an effect of ORAP upon the heart. Therefore, patients should be instructed not to exceed the prescribed dose of ORAP and they should realize the need for the initial ECG and for follow-up ECGs during treatment.

Also, pimozide, at a dose about 15 times that given humans, caused an increase in the number of benign tumors of the pituitary gland in female mice. It is not possible to say how important this is. Similar tumors were not seen in rats given pimozide, nor at lower doses in mice, which is reassuring. However, any such finding must be considered to suggest a possible risk of long term use of the drug.

Because substances in grapefruit juice may inhibit the metabolism of pimozide by CYP 3A4, patients should be advised to avoid grapefruit juice.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/7/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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PATIENT INFORMATION

Treatment with ORAP exposes the patient to serious risks. A decision to use ORAP chronically in Tourette's Disorder is one that deserves full consideration by the patient (or patient's family) as well as by the treating physician. Because the goal of treatment is symptomatic improvement, the patient's view of the need for treatment and assessment of response are critical in evaluating the impact of therapy and weighing its benefits against the risks. Since the physician is the primary source of information about the use of a drug in any disease, it is recommended that the following information be discussed with patients and/or their families.

ORAP is intended only for use in patients with Tourette's Disorder whose symptoms are severe and who cannot tolerate, or who do not respond to HALDOL® (haloperidol).

Given the likelihood that a proportion of patients exposed chronically to antipsychotics will develop tardive dyskinesia, it is advised that all patients in whom chronic use is contemplated be given, if possible, full information about this risk. The decision to inform patients and/or their guardians must obviously take into account the clinical circumstances and the competency of the patient to understand the information provided.

There is limited information available on the use of ORAP in children under 12 years of age.

The information available on ORAP from foreign marketing experience and from U.S. clinical trials indicates that ORAP has a side effect profile similar to that of other antipsychotic drugs. Patients should be informed that all types of side effects associated with the use of antipsychotics may be associated with the use of ORAP.

In addition, sudden, unexpected deaths have occurred in patients taking high doses of ORAP for conditions other than Tourette's Disorder. These deaths may have been the result of an effect of ORAP upon the heart. Therefore, patients should be instructed not to exceed the prescribed dose of ORAP and they should realize the need for the initial ECG and for follow-up ECGs during treatment.

Also, pimozide, at a dose about 15 times that given humans, caused an increase in the number of benign tumors of the pituitary gland in female mice. It is not possible to say how important this is. Similar tumors were not seen in rats given pimozide, nor at lower doses in mice, which is reassuring. However, any such finding must be considered to suggest a possible risk of long term use of the drug.

Because substances in grapefruit juice may inhibit the metabolism of pimozide by CYP 3A4, patients should be advised to avoid grapefruit juice.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/7/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Disclaimer

Orap Consumer

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

PIMOZIDE - ORAL

(PIM-oh-zide)

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Orap

USES: This medication is used to reduce uncontrolled movements (motor tics) or outbursts of words/sounds (vocal tics) caused by Tourette syndrome. Pimozide is a medication that works by decreasing the activity of a natural substance (dopamine) in the brain.

Pimozide should not be used for mild symptoms. It should only be used if symptoms cause severe problems in everyday life and other medicines or treatments have not been effective.

OTHER USES: This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional. Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.

In Canada, this medication has been used to treat a certain mental/mood disorder (chronic schizophrenia).

HOW TO USE: Take this medication by mouth with or without food, usually once a day at bedtime or as directed by your doctor.

Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. Your doctor may direct you to take a low dose at first, gradually increasing the dose to lower the chance of side effects such as shaking (tremors).

Do not take this drug more often or increase the dose. Your symptoms will not improve any faster, and the risk for heart rhythm problems will be increased. Follow your doctor's directions carefully.

Your doctor may order an electrocardiogram (EKG) and laboratory tests before you start this medication. These tests are to find out whether you are at risk for heart rhythm problems from pimozide. Keep all medical/lab appointments.

Other drugs, such as stimulant medications (such as methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine), may occasionally worsen tics. Before deciding to start pimozide, your doctor may try to reduce your tics by lowering the stimulant dose. Consult your doctor for more details.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while using this medication unless your doctor instructs you otherwise. Grapefruit can increase the amount of this medication in your bloodstream. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.

Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time each day.

Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor. Your condition may become worse when the drug is suddenly stopped. Your dose may need to be gradually decreased.

Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.

Disclaimer

Orap Consumer (continued)

SIDE EFFECTS: Drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, blurred vision, tiredness, or weakness may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

This drug may cause muscle/nervous system problems (extrapyramidal symptoms-EPS). Your doctor may prescribe another medication to decrease these side effects. Therefore, tell your doctor immediately if you notice any of the following side effects: stiff muscles, severe muscle spasms/cramping (such as twisting neck, arching back, eyes rolling up), restlessness/constant need to move, shaking (tremor), slow/shuffling walk, drooling/trouble swallowing, mask-like expression of the face.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Some people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

This medication may cause a condition known as tardive dyskinesia. In some cases, this condition may be permanent. Tell your doctor immediately if you develop any involuntary/repetitive muscle movements such as lip smacking/puckering, tongue thrusting, chewing, or finger/toe movements.

In rare cases, pimozide may increase your level of a certain chemical made by the body (prolactin). For females, this increase in prolactin may result in unwanted breast milk, missed/stopped periods, or difficulty becoming pregnant. For males, it may result in decreased sexual ability, inability to produce sperm, or enlarged breasts. If you develop any of these symptoms, tell your doctor immediately.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: signs of infection (such as fever, persistent sore throat).

Seek immediate medical attention if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: severe dizziness, fainting, fast/slow/irregular heartbeat, seizures.

This medication may rarely cause a serious condition called neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). Seek immediate medical attention if you develop the following: fever, stiff muscles, sweating, fast/irregular heartbeat, sudden mental/mood changes (such as confusion, loss of consciousness), change in the amount of urine.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Read the Orap (pimozide) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

PRECAUTIONS: Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: blood problems (such as a low white blood cell count), a certain eye condition (glaucoma), dementia, depression, heart problems (such as slow/fast/irregular heartbeat, low blood pressure), slow movement of the gut/intestines (such as chronic constipation, blockage), kidney disease, liver disease, brain disorder/tumor/injury, drug/alcohol/substance abuse, breast cancer, Parkinson's disease, seizure disorder, a certain severe reaction to other antipsychotic-type medications (neuroleptic malignant syndrome-NMS), difficulty urinating (such as due to prostate problems).

This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy or cause vision changes. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness or clear vision until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Avoid alcoholic beverages.

Pimozide may cause a condition that affects the heart rhythm (QT prolongation). QT prolongation can infrequently result in serious (rarely fatal) fast/irregular heartbeat and other symptoms (such as severe dizziness, fainting) that require immediate medical attention. The risk of QT prolongation may be increased if you have certain medical conditions or are taking other drugs that may affect the heart rhythm (see also Drug Interactions section). Before using pimozide, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any of the following conditions: certain heart problems (heart failure, slow heartbeat, QT prolongation in the EKG), family history of certain heart problems (QT prolongation in the EKG, sudden cardiac death).

Low levels of potassium or magnesium in the blood may also increase your risk of QT prolongation. This risk may increase if you use certain drugs (such as diuretics/"water pills") or if you have conditions such as severe sweating, diarrhea, or vomiting. Talk to your doctor about using pimozide safely.

Before having surgery or imaging procedures (such as certain X-rays, CT scans) requiring the use of contrast dye (such as metrizamide), tell your doctor or dentist that you are using this medication and about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication unless directed by your doctor. Babies born to mothers who have used this drug during the last 3 months of pregnancy may infrequently develop symptoms including muscle stiffness or shakiness, drowsiness, feeding/breathing difficulties, or constant crying. If you notice any of these symptoms in your newborn anytime during their first month, tell the doctor right away.

It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breastfeeding.

Disclaimer

Orap Consumer (continued)

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

Some products that may interact with this drug include: anticholinergic/antispasmodic drugs (such as atropine, dicyclomine, scopolamine), drugs that increase the amount of dopamine in your body (such as bromocriptine, cabergoline, levodopa, pergolide, ropinirole).

Other medications can affect the removal of pimozide from your body, which may affect how pimozide works. Examples include aprepitant, azole antifungals (such as ketoconazole, itraconazole), delavirdine, HIV protease inhibitors (such as ritonavir, nelfinavir), macrolide antibiotics (such as azithromycin, erythromycin), nefazodone, SSRI antidepressants (such as fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline), zileuton, among others.

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking other products that cause drowsiness including alcohol, antihistamines (such as cetirizine, diphenhydramine), drugs for sleep or anxiety (such as alprazolam, diazepam, zolpidem), muscle relaxants, and narcotic pain relievers (such as codeine).

Check the labels on all your medicines (such as allergy or cough-and-cold products) because they may contain ingredients that cause drowsiness. Ask your pharmacist about using those products safely.

Many drugs besides pimozide may affect the heart rhythm (QT prolongation). Examples include amiodarone, cisapride, citalopram/escitalopram, chlorpromazine, dofetilide, procainamide, quinidine, ranolazine, sotalol, macrolide antibiotics (such as clarithromycin, erythromycin), among others.

Also report the use of drugs that might increase seizure risk when combined with pimozide, such as bupropion, isoniazid (INH), phenothiazines (such as promethazine), lithium, theophylline, or tricyclic antidepressants (such as amitriptyline), among others. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for details.

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call the US National Poison Hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: slow/shallow breathing, inability to wake up (coma).

NOTES: Do not share this medication with others.

Laboratory and medical tests (such as electrocardiogram-EKG, complete blood count), should be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

STORAGE: Store at room temperature away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

Information last revised October 2011. Copyright(c) 2011 First Databank, Inc.

Orap Patient Information Including Side Effects

Brand Names: Orap

Generic Name: pimozide (Pronunciation: PIM oh zide)

What is pimozide (Orap)?

Pimozide is an antipsychotic medication. It works by changing the actions of chemicals in the brain.

Pimozide is used to suppress the motor and phonic tics associated with Tourette's disorder.

Pimozide may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Orap 2 mg

elliptical, white, imprinted with LEMMON, ORAP 2

What are the possible side effects of pimozide (Orap)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • seizure (convulsions);
  • twitching or uncontrollable movements of your eyes, lips, tongue, face, arms, or legs; or
  • very stiff (rigid) muscles, high fever, sweating, confusion, fast or uneven heartbeats, tremors, feeling like you might pass out.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • fever;
  • headache, dizziness, drowsiness;
  • feeling restless;
  • vision problems;
  • constipation; or
  • dry mouth.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Orap (pimozide) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »

What is the most important information I should know about pimozide (Orap)?

Grapefruit and grapefruit juice may interact with pimozide and lead to potentially dangerous effects. Avoid eating or drinking grapefruit products while taking this medication.

Pimozide may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert.

Drinking alcohol can increase certain side effects of pimozide.

Call your doctor right away if you have uncontrollable movements of your eyes, lips, tongue, face, arms, or legs.

Side Effects Centers

Orap Patient Information including How Should I Take

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking pimozide (Orap)?

You should not use this medication if you are allergic to pimozide or other antipsychotic medicines, or if you have:

  • low levels of potassium or magnesium in your blood; or
  • a history of Long QT syndrome.
  • itraconazole (Sporanox) or ketoconazole (Nizoral);
  • tacrolimus (Prograf);
  • zileuton (Zyflo);
  • an ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) medication, such as Ritalin, Concerta, Daytrana, Focalin, Adderall, and others);
  • antibiotics including azithromycin (Zithromax), clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (E.E.S., EryPed, Ery-Tab, Erythrocin, Pediazole), levofloxacin (Levaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), and pentamidine (NebuPent, Pentam);
  • antidepressants including amitriptylline (Elavil, Vanatrip, Limbitrol), citalopram (Celexa), clomipramine (Anafranil), desipramine (Norpramin), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluvoxamine (Luvox), nefazodone, paroxetine (Paxil), and sertraline (Zoloft);
  • anti-malaria medications such as chloroquine (Arelan), or mefloquine (Lariam);
  • heart rhythm medicine such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), dofetilide (Tikosyn), disopyramide (Norpace), ibutilide (Corvert), procainamide (Pronestyl), propafenone (Rythmol), quinidine (Quin-G), or sotalol (Betapace);
  • HIV/AIDS medicine such as atazanavir (Reyataz), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), saquinavir (Invirase), or ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra);
  • medicine to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting such as dolasetron (Anzemet), droperidol (Inapsine), or ondansetron (Zofran);
  • medicines to treat psychiatric disorders, such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), clozapine (FazaClo, Clozaril), haloperidol (Haldol), thioridazine (Mellaril), or ziprasidone (Geodon);
  • migraine headache medicine such as sumatriptan (Imitrex, Treximet) or zolmitriptan (Zomig); or
  • narcotic medication such as methadone (Methadose, Diskets, Dolophine).

To make sure you can safely take pimozide, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

  • liver disease;
  • kidney disease;
  • seizures or epilepsy;
  • heart disease, high blood pressure, a heart rhythm disorder, or a history of a heart attack;
  • enlarged prostate or urination problems; or
  • glaucoma.

Before you start taking pimozide, your heart function may need to be checked using an electrocardiograph or ECG (sometimes called an EKG). This machine measures electrical activity of the heart.

FDA pregnancy category C. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using this medication.

Taking this medication during the last 3 months of pregnancy may cause problems in the newborn, such as withdrawal symptoms, breathing problems, feeding problems, fussiness, tremors, and limp or stiff muscles. However, you may have withdrawal symptoms or other problems if you stop taking your medicine during pregnancy. If you become pregnant while taking pimozide, do not stop taking it without your doctor's advice.

It is not known whether pimozide passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while you are using pimozide.

Pimozide should not be given to a child younger than 12 years old.

How should I take pimozide (Orap)?

Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results.

Tell your doctor if you have a prolonged illness that causes diarrhea or vomiting. You may develop an electrolyte imbalance, which could cause heart rhythm problems while you are taking pimozide.

It may take several weeks before your symptoms improve. Keep using the medication as directed and tell your doctor if your symptoms do not improve, or if they get worse.

Do not stop using pimozide suddenly, or you could have unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Ask your doctor how to avoid withdrawal symptoms when you stop using pimozide.

Store at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light.

Side Effects Centers

Orap Patient Information including If I Miss a Dose

What happens if I miss a dose (Orap)?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose (Orap)?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

Overdose symptoms may include some of the serious side effects listed in this medication guide.

What should I avoid while taking pimozide (Orap)?

Pimozide may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert.

Drinking alcohol can increase certain side effects of pimozide.

Grapefruit and grapefruit juice may interact with pimozide and lead to potentially dangerous effects. Avoid eating or drinking grapefruit products while taking this medication.

What other drugs will affect pimozide (Orap)?

Before using pimozide, tell your doctor if you regularly use other medicines that make you sleepy (such as cold or allergy medicine, sedatives, narcotic pain medicine, sleeping pills, muscle relaxers, and medicine for depression or anxiety). They can add to sleepiness caused by pimozide.

Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use, especially:

  • ciprofloxacin (Cipro), norfloxacin (Noroxin), ofloxacin (Floxin);
  • a diuretic (water pill);
  • fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, Symbyax);
  • lidocaine (Xylocaine);
  • methoxsalen (Oxsoralen, Uvadex, 8-Mop);
  • mexiletine (Mexitil);
  • thiabendazole (Mintezol); or
  • medicine to treat or prevent seizures.

This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with pimozide. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about pimozide.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 10.01. Revision date: 11/2/2011.

Your use of the content provided in this service indicates that you have read,understood and agree to the End-User License Agreement,which can be accessed by clicking on this link.

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Side Effects Centers

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